From 3 November to 6 November 1898, the people of Negros rose in revolt against the Spanish authorities headed by politico-military governor Colonel Isidro de Castro. The Spaniards decided to surrender upon seeing armed troops marching in a pincer movement towards Bacolod. The revolutionaries, led by General Juan Araneta from Bago and General Aniceto Lacson from Talisay, were actually carrying fake arms consisting of rifles carved out of palm fronds and cannons of rolled bamboo mats painted black. By the afternoon of 6 November, Colonel de Castro signed the Act of Capitulation, thus ending Spanish rule in Negros Occidental.
On November 27, 1898, the unicameral Chamber of Deputies (Spanish: Camara de Deputados) met in Bacolod and declared the establishment of the Cantonal Republic of Negros (Spanish: República Cantonal de Negros). The Chamber of Deputies acted as a Constituent Assembly to draft a constitution. When the invasion of the United States Army was looming, President Aniceto Lacson raised the American flag in the Casa Real to welcome the army as a friendly force. Despite the initial protest from the Negros Oriental deputies, the republic came under U.S. protection on 30 April 30, 1899 as a separate state from the rest of the Philippine Islands and on the next day, the constitution was passed. On 22 July 1899, it was renamed the Republic of Negros, but on 30 April 1901, it was dissolved and annexed to the Philippine Islands by the United States.
In Bago City, the event was chronicled in a historic marker found in the Public Plaza, which bears the following inscriptions:
REPÚBLICA DE NEGROS
“In this plaza of Bago was proclaimed the
República de Negros by the Revolutionary
Forces led by general Juan Anacleto Araneta,
5 November 1898. Witnessed by Anaias
Diokno, representative of the Central Revolutionary
Government. This Republic acknowledges
The authority of the First Philippine Republic
under Emilio Aguinaldo.”