Republic Day is the name of a holiday in several countries to commemorate the day when they became republics. In some countries, it is known as National Day or Proclamation Day, or by some other sort of name.
India gained its independence on 15 August 1947, after which the process of preparing a constitution was started. The Constitution was passed on 26 November 1949 in the Constituent Assembly. It was adopted on 26 January 1950 with a democratic government system, when the country became a republic in true sense. 26 January was selected, because it was this day in 1930 when the Declaration of Indian Independence was passed.
The Memorial Day of the Republic (A köztársaság emléknapja) commemorates the proclamation of the Republic of Hungary on 1 February 1946. Since 2004, this day is a national commemoration day, not a public or national holiday.
In Pakistan, 23 March marks two related events; the first was the passing of the Lahore Resolution in 1940, by the leaders of the Muslim League, essentially demanding a separate state for Muslims, ultimately leading to the independence of Pakistan in 1947. The second event was the formal declaration of Pakistan as an Islamic Republic in 1956, having previously held the status of a Dominion. The main events of this day include a full military parade and the awarding of honors at the Presidential Palace by the President.
A decade-long People's Revolution by the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) along with several weeks of mass protests by all major political parties of Nepal in 2006, culminated in a peace accord and the ensuing elections for the constituent assembly voted overwhelmingly in favor of the abdication of the last Nepali monarch Gyanendra Shah and the establishment of a federal democratic republic on 28 May 2008.
Between 1961 and 1994, 31 May was celebrated in South Africa as Republic Day. This practice was discontinued in 1995 following the attainment of majority rule and the reorganisation of public holidays as a consequence. On the last Republic Day, in 1994, South Africa rejoined the Commonwealth of Nations.
Republic Day is celebrated on 2 June. It commemorates the referendum of 1946, when the Italian population was called to decide what form of government (monarchy or republic) to give to the country after World War II and the fall of Fascism. After 85 years of monarchy, Italy became a Republic, and the monarchs of the House of Savoy were deposed and exiled. This is one of the most important Italian public holidays which, like 14 July in France and 4 July in the USA, celebrates the birth of the nation. A grand military parade is held in central Rome.
14 July 1958 is the day the Hashemite monarchy was overthrown in Iraq by popular forces led by Abdul Karim Kassem, who became the nation's new leader. The event was commemorated in Baghdad with a statue in 14 July Square.
Trinidad and Tobago officially ceased being a Commonwealth realm on 1 August 1976 with the promulgation of a new, republican constitution. Republic Day is however celebrated as a public holiday on 24 September, the date when the first Parliament met. The holiday was not included in the official calendar of observances from 1999 to 2001 to make way for Spiritual Baptist/Shouter Liberation Day, which is celebrated on 30 March. The Republic Day holiday was reinstated in 2002.
Although the government of Ian Smith declared Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) a republic on 2 March 1970, the annual Republic Day holiday took place on the second-to-last Monday in October. It was abolished in October 1979 by the interim government of Zimbabwe Rhodesia.
On 29 October 1923, the Turkish constitution was amended and Turkey became a republic. This formally declared the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire. Republic Day (Turkish: Cumhuriyet Bayramı) is celebrated throughout Turkey every year. Commemorative events usually begin in the afternoon on the previous day. In observance of the holiday, government offices and schools close for a day. Also, there are fireworks shows in all cities of Turkey.
On 15 November 1889, in the city of Rio de Janeiro (the Brazilian capital at that time), a military coup led by Field Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca overthrew Emperor Pedro II and declared Brazil a republic.
On 29 November 1943, the Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of Yugoslavia established the foundations of post-war Yugoslavia as a federal republic, which was officially proclaimed on the same date in 1945. Republic Day (local name: Dan Republike or Дан Републике) marked the occasion two consecutive days, 29 and 30 November, and was likely the most important holiday (the other two-day holidays were New Year and May Day).
In elementary schools first graders were inducted into the Pioneer Movement on or around Republic Day. Employees merged the holiday with weekends and extra days off to form weekends of three, four or even five days. Urban dwellers took the occasion to visit their relatives in the country, who marked the event with pig slaughter and the ensuing feast.
In the 1980s, as central and Communist Party authority eroded, dissenters targeted Republic Day celebrations for criticism. In 1987, Bosniangarage rock band Zabranjeno pušenje published a song entitled Dan Republike, in which they criticized the state of the economy and protested the general indifference to the ideals behind the holiday. The band had to change some of the lyrics before being allowed to air the song.
On 13 December 1974, the constitution of Malta was substantially revised, transforming the former British colony from a Commonwealth realm into a republic within the Commonwealth. The British monarch was no longer Reġina ta' Malta (Queen of Malta) and the new Head of State was President Sir Anthony Mamo. This occasion is marked every year as Republic Day (Maltese: Jum ir-Repubblika) in Malta. The monument of Republic Day is at Marsa.
The 18th is celebrated in Niger with official festivals and appearances of political leaders, as well as public parties and festivities. The 50th anniversary celebrations were held in 2006, centered not in the capitol, but in the regional center of Tillabéry, and surrounded by sports, musical and arts competitions, the opening of new buildings, a National Youth Festival, and other public festivities.