Depending on the definition chosen for these terms, a number of persons could alternatively be considered the inaugural holder of the office. Andrés Bonifacio is the de facto first President of a united Philippines. He was the third Supreme President (Spanish: Presidente Supremo; Tagalog: Kataás-taasang Pangulo) of the Katipunan, a secret revolutionary society. Its Supreme Council, led by the Supreme President, coordinated provincial and district councils. When the Katipunan went into open revolt in August 1896, Bonifacio had transformed it into a de facto revolutionary government with him as its head. While the term Katipunan remained, Bonifacio's government was also known as the Tagalog Republic (Spanish: República Tagala). Although the word Tagalog refers to a specific ethno-linguistic group, Bonifacio used it to denote all indigenous peoples of the Philippines in place of Filipino, which had colonial origins. In place of the Spanish Filipinas he coined the Tagalog title, Haring Bayang Katagalugan ("Sovereign Tagalog Nation") for the new state. Some historians contend that including Bonifacio as a past president would imply that Macario Sacay and Miguel Malvar should also be included.
Aguinaldo's Government and the First Republic
In March 1897, Emilio Aguinaldo was elected president of a revolutionary government at the Tejeros Convention. The new government was meant to replace the Katipunan as a government, though the latter was not formally abolished until 1899. Aguinaldo was again elected President at Biak-na-Bato in November, leading the Biak-na-Bato Republic. Exiled in Hong Kong after the Pact of Biak-na-Bato, with the advent of the Spanish-American War he returned to the Philippines to renew revolutionary activities and formed a dictatorial government on May 24, 1898. Revolutionary forces under his command declared independence on June 12, 1898. On June 23, 1898, Aguinaldo transformed his dictatorial government into a revolutionary government. On January 23, 1899, he was then elected President of the Philippine Republic (Spanish: República Filipina), a government constituted by the Malolos Congress. Thus, this government is also called the Malolos Republic. Sovereignty over the Philippines passed from Spain to the United States with the Treaty of Paris, which ended the Spanish-American War. Aguinaldo's government effectively ceased to exist on April 1, 1901, when he pledged allegiance to the United States after being captured by U.S. forces in March. The current Philippine government, formally called the Republic of the Philippines, considers Emilio Aguinaldo to be the second President of the Philippines and the Malolos Republic as the "First" Philippine Republic.
Miguel Malvar continued Aguinaldo's leadership of the Philippine Republic after the latter's capture until his own capture in 1902, while Macario Sakay founded a Tagalog Republic in 1902 as a continuing state of Bonifacio's Katipunan. They are both considered by some scholars as "unofficial presidents", and along with Bonifacio, are not recognized as Presidents by the government.
Between 1901 and 1935, executive power in the Philippines was exercised by a succession of four American military Governors-General and eleven civil Governors-General.
After the combined American and Filipino forces liberated the islands in 1945, Laurel officially dissolved the republic on August 17, 1945.
After World War II
The 1935 Constitution was restored after the Japanese surrender ended World War II, with Vice-President Sergio Osmeña becoming President due to Quezon's death on August 1, 1944. It remained in effect after the United States recognized the sovereignty of the Republic of the Philippines as a separate self-governing nation on July 4, 1946.
A new Constitution ratified on January 17, 1973 under the rule of Ferdinand E. Marcos introduced a parliamentary-style government. Marcos instituted himself as the Prime Minister while serving as President in 1978. He later appointed a new Prime Minister in 1981.
Using reserve powers, President Aquino herself promulgated Presidential Proclamation № 3 on March 25, 1986, which was provisional in nature and abolished many provisions of the 1973 Constitution that were associated with the Marcos Era, including the abolition of the office of the Prime Minister. This was superseded on February 2, 1987 by the present Constitution.
Both Bonifacio and Aguinaldo might be considered to have been an inaugural president of an insurgent government. Quezon was the inaugural president of a predecessor state to the current one, while Aquino, mère, was the inaugural president of the currently-constituted government.
The government considers Aguinaldo to have been the first President of the Philippines, followed by Quezon and his successors. Despite the differences in constitutions and government, the line of presidents is considered to be continuous. For instance, the current president, Benigno S. Aquino III, is considered to be the 15th president.
While the government may consider Aguinaldo as the first president, the First Republic fell under the United States' jurisdiction due to the 1898 Treaty of Paris which ended the Spanish-American War; the United States thus does not consider his tenure to have been legitimate.Manuel L. Quezon is considered to be the first president by the United States and the first to win a popular election.
As with many other Axis-occupied countries in World War II, the Philippines had at one point two presidents heading two governments. One was Quezon and the Commonwealth government-in-exile in Washington, D.C. (considered de jure), and the other was Manila-based Laurel heading the Japanese-sponsored Second Republic (considered de facto). Notably, Laurel was himself instructed to remain in Manila by President Quezón. Laurel was not formally recognized as a President until the rule of Diosdado Macapagal, and this is still the case today. His inclusion in the official list coincided with the movement of Independence Day from July 4 (commemorating sovereignty in 1946) to June 12 (anniversary of the proclamation of the First Republic).
The inclusion of Laurel thus causes some problems in determining the order of Presidents. It is inaccurate to call Laurel as Osmeña's successor or vice-versa, as Laurel's Second Republic was formally rejected after World War II, and none of its actions were considered legal or binding. Quezon, Osmeña, and Roxas were three in a contiguous line according to the 1935 Constitution, while Laurel was the only President of the Second Republic (which had a separate charter). Thus, Laurel has neither predecessor nor successor, while Osmeña succeeded Quezon after the latter's death, and was in turn succeeded by Roxas as President of the Third Republic.
Section 19 gives the President power to grant reprieves, commutations, and pardons, and remit fines and forfeitures, after conviction by final judgment, except when the President is under impeachment.
Section 20 provides the President to contract or guarantee foreign loans on behalf of the Republic of the Philippines with the prior concurrence of the Monetary Board, and subject to such limitations as may be provided by law.
The President exercises general supervision over local government units.
Article 7 Section 18 of the Constitution: "the President is also Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. As Commander-in-Chief, the President can call out such armed forces to prevent or suppress lawless violence, invasion or rebellion. In case of invasion or rebellion, when the public safety requires it, he or she may, for a period not exceeding sixty days, suspend the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus or place the Philippines or any part thereof under martial law.
Power of appointment
The Constitution (Article VII Section 16) empowers the President to appoint, with the consent of the Commission on Appointments, the heads of executive departments, ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, officers of the armed forces above the rank of colonel (Army) and captain (Navy), and other officials. The president also appoints those required by law that he appoint, or those whose appointments are not provided for under any other law. The members of the Supreme Court are also appointed by the President, based on a list prepared by the Judicial and Bar Council. Judicial appointments do not need the approval of the Commission on Appointments.
a resident of the Philippines for at least ten years immediately preceding election.
A person who meets the above qualifications is still disqualified from holding the office of president under any of the following conditions:
Under Article 7, Section 4 of the 1987 Constitution, a person who has already been elected President is automatically ineligible for immediate reelection. No person who has succeeded as President and has served as such for more than four years is likewise forbidden from being re-elected to a second term. Joseph Estrada, who has served for two and a half years as president was allowed to run for president after he was ousted; his case was never decided by the Supreme Court.
Under Article 6, Section 8 of the Constitution mandates that election of the President be done by direct vote every second Monday of May, unless otherwise provided by law.
The returns of every election for President and Vice-President, duly certified by the board of canvassers of each province or city, shall be transmitted to Congress, directed to the President of the Senate. Upon receipt of the certificates of canvass, the President of the Senate shall open all the certificates in the presence of a joint public session of Congress not later than 30 days after election day. Congress then canvasses the votes upon determining that the polls are authenticity and were done in the manner provided by law.
The person with the highest number of votes is declared the winner, but in case two or more have the highest number of votes, the President is elected by a majority of all members of both Houses, voting separately on each.
The President of the Philippines usually takes the Oath of Office at noon of June 30 following the Presidential election
Traditionally, the Vice-President takes the Oath first, a little before noon. This is for two reasons: first, according to protocol, no one follows the President (who is last due to his supremacy), and second, to establish a constitutionally valid successor before the President-elect accedes. During the Quezon inauguration, however, the Vice-President and the Legislature were sworn in after the President, to symbolise a new start.
As soon as the President takes the Oath of Office, a 21-gun salute is fired to salute the new Philippine head of state, and the Presidential AnthemMabuhay is played. The President delivers the Inaugural Address, and then proceeds to Malacañang Palace to climb the Grand Staircase, a ritual which symbolises the formal possession of the Palace. The President then inducts the newly formed Cabinet into office in one of the state rooms.
In the past, elections were held in November and the President's inauguration was held on December 30 (Rizal Day). This ensured that when the Inauguration was usually held at Quirino Grandstand, the new President could see the Rizal Monument on the day of his death anniversary. Ferdinand Marcos transferred the dates of both the elections and the Inauguration to May and June, respectively, and it remains so to this day.
The dress code at the modern Inaugural is traditional, formal Filipino clothing, which is otherwise loosely termed Filipiniana. Ladies must wear terno, baro't saya (the formal wear of other indigenous groups is permissible), while men don the Barong Tagalog. Non-FIlipinos at the ceremony may wear their respective versions of formal dress, but foreign diplomats have often been seen donning Filipiniana as a mark of cultural respect.
Oath of Office
Under Article VII, Section 5 of the Constitution, before the President-Elect and Vice-President-Elect enter into the execution of their offices, the President shall take the following Oath or affirmation:
I, [name], do solemnly swear [or affirm] that I will faithfully and conscientiously fulfill my duties as President [or Vice-President or Acting President] of the Philippines, preserve and defend its Constitution, execute its laws, do justice to every man, and consecrate myself to the service of the Nation. So help me God.
[In case of affirmation, last sentence will be omitted.]
The Filipino text of the Oath was used for the inaugurations of Presidents Fidel V. Ramos, Joseph Estrada and Benigno Aquino III reads:
Matimtim kong pinanunumpaan (o pinatotohanan) na tutuparin ko nang buong katapatan at sigasig ang aking mga tungkulin bilang Pangulo (o Pangalawang Pangulo o Nanunungkulang Pangulo) ng Pilipinas, pangangalagaan at ipagtatanggol ang kanyang Konstitusyon, ipatutupad ang mga batas nito, magiging makatarungan sa bawat tao, at itatalaga ang aking sarili sa paglilingkod sa Bansa. Kasihan nawa ako ng Diyos.
(Kapag pagpapatotoo, ang huling pangungusap ay kakaltasin.)
Impeachment in the Philippines follows procedures similar to the United States. Under Sections 2 and 3, Article XI, Constitution of the Philippines, the House of Representatives of the Philippines has the exclusive power to initiate all cases of impeachment against the President, Vice President, members of the Supreme Court, members of the Constitutional Commissions (Commission on Elections,Civil Service Commission Commission on Audit), and the Ombudsman. When a third of its membership has endorsed the impeachment articles, it is then transmitted to the Senate of the Philippines which tries and decide, as impeachment tribunal, the impeachment case. A main difference from US proceedings however is that only 1/3 of House members are required to approve the motion to impeach the President (as opposed to 50%+1 members in their US counterpart). In the Senate, selected members of the House of Representatives act as the prosecutors and the Senators act as judges with the Senate President and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court jointly presiding over the proceedings. Like the United States, to convict the official in question requires that a minimum of 2/3 (i.e., 16 of 24 members) of the senate vote in favour of conviction. If an impeachment attempt is unsuccessful or the official is acquitted, no new cases can be filed against that impeachable official for at least one full year.
Impeachable offenses and officials
The 1987 Philippine Constitution says the grounds for impeachment include culpable violation of the Constitution, bribery, graft and corruption, and betrayal of public trust. These offenses are considered "high crimes and misdemeanors" under the Philippine Constitution.
The President, Vice President, Supreme Court justices, and members of the Constitutional Commission and Ombudsman are all considered impeachable officials under the Constitution.
Impeachment proceedings and attempts
Joseph Estrada was the first Philippine president impeached by the House in 2000, but the trial ended prematurely due to outrage over a vote to open an envelope where that motion was narrowly defeated by his allies.
In 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008, impeachment complaints were filed against President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, but none of the cases reached the required endorsement of 1/3 of the members for transmittal to, and trial by, the Senate.
The official title of the president is "President of the Philippines." The title in Filipino is "Pangulo" The honorific for the President of the Philippines is "Your Excellency" or "His/Her Excellency", adopted from the title of the Governor-General of the Philippines during Spanish and American occupation. The term "President of the Republic of the Philippines", used under Japanese occupation of the Philippines distinguished the government of then-President José P. Laurel from the Commonwealth government in exile under President Manuel L. Quezon. The restoration of the Commonwealth in 1945 and the subsequent independence of the Philippines title "President of the Philippines" sanctioned in the 1935 constitution. The 1973 constitution, though generally referring to the president as "President of the Philippines" did, in Article XVII, Section 12, once used the term, "President of the Republic." President Ferdinand E. Marcos proclaimed martial law in his Proclamation No. 1081 and consistently used the term "President of the Philippines."
The State of the Nation Address (abbreviated SONA) is an annual event in the Philippines, in which the President of the Philippines reports on the status of the nation, normally to the resumption of a joint session of the Congress (the House of Representatives and the Senate). This is a duty of the President as stated in Article VII, Section 23 of the 1987 Constitution:
The President shall address Congress at the opening of its regular session. He/She may also appear anytime.
Tenure and term limits
Ferdinand Marcos was the only three-term Philippine President (1965–1969, 1969–1981, 1981–1986).
The 1935 Constitution originally provided for a single six-year term for a president without re-election. In 1940, however, the 1935 Constitution was amended and the term of the President (and Vice-President) was shortened to four years but allowed one re-election. Since the amendment was done, only Presidents Manuel L. Quezon (1941) and Ferdinand Marcos (1969) were re-elected. Presidents Sergio Osmeña (1946), Elpidio Quirino (1953), Carlos P. Garcia (1961) and Diosdado Macapagal (1965) all failed in seeking a new term.
However, in 1973, a new Constitution was promulgated and allowed then-incumbent President Ferdinand Marcos to seek a new term. In 1981, Marcos was again elected as President against Alejo Santos – making him the only President to be elected to a third term.
Today, under Article 7, Section 4 of the 1987 Constitution of the Philippines, the term of the President shall begin at noon on the thirtieth day of June next following the day of the election and shall end at noon of the same date, six years thereafter. The incumbent President shall not be eligible for any re-election. No person who has succeeded as President and has served as such for more than four years shall be qualified for election to the same office at any time.
At the start of the term
Under Article 7, Section 7 of the Constitution of the Philippines, In case the president-elect fails to qualify, the Vice President-elect shall act as President until the President-elect shall have qualified.
If at the beginning of the term of the President, the President-elect shall have died or shall have become permanently disabled, the Vice President-elect shall become President.
Where no President and Vice President shall have been chosen or shall have qualified, or where both shall have died or become permanently disabled, the President of the Senate or, in case of his inability, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, shall act as President until a President or a Vice President shall have been chosen and qualified.
During the term
Article 7, Sections 8 and 11 of the Constitution of the Philippines provide rules of succession to the presidency. In case of death, permanent disability, removal from office, or resignation of the President, the Vice President will become the President to serve the unexpired term. In case of death, permanent disability, removal from office, or resignation of both the President and Vice President; the President of the Senate or, in case of his inability, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, shall then act as President until the President or Vice-President shall have been elected and qualified.
The Congress shall, by law, provide who shall serve as President in case of death, permanent disability, or resignation of the Acting President. He shall serve until the President or the Vice President shall have been elected and qualified, and be subject to the same restrictions of powers and disqualifications as the Acting President.
The line of presidential succession as specified by Article 7, Section 10 of the Constitution of the Philippines are the Vice President, Senate President and the Speaker of the House of Representatives.
If the offices of both the President and the Vice President become vacant at the same time, Congress shall enact a law calling for special election. However, if the presidential election is 18 months away, no special election shall be called.
Malacañang Palace is the official residence of the President of the Philippines, to which they are entitled under Article VII, Section 6 of the Constitution. The Palace is located along the north bank of the Pasig River in the District of San Miguel, Manila.
The Filipino name is derived from the Tagalog phrase "may lakán diyán", ("there is a nobleman there"), and this was eventually shortened to Malakanyáng. There are two variant of the name in official use: "Malacañan" refers to the structure of the Palace, while "Malacañang" identifies the office of the President. The latter, along with the term "the Palace" ("ang Palasyo") are interchangeable, metonyms for the President and his household in colloquial speech and in the media.
Malacañang Park was originally built by former President Manuel L. Quezon as a rest house and venue for informal activities and social functions for the First Family. The house was built and designed by architect Juan Arellano in the 1930s, and underwent a number of renovations. In 2008, the house was demolished and rebuilt in contemporary style by architect Conrad Onglao, and a new swimming pool was built, replacing the Commonwealth Era one. The house originally had one bedroom, however, it was renovated for Aquino to have four bedrooms, a guest room, a room for his household staff, and a room for his close-in security. Malacañang Park was refurbished through the efforts of First Lady Eva Macapagal, the second wife of President Diosdado Macapagal, in the early 1960s. Mrs. Macapagal renamed the rest house as Bahay Pangarap.
Under Fidel V. Ramos, Bahay Pangarap was transformed into a clubhouse for the Malacañang Golf Club. The house was subsequently used by President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo to welcome special guests. Aquino fil made it clear before he assumed office that he refused to live in the main Palace, or in the nearby Arlegui Mansion (where he once lived during his mother's rule and where Ramos later stayed), stating that both are too big. He lived in the Aquino family residence along Times Street, Quezon City in the first few days of his rule, though he transferred to Bahay Panagarap because it was deemed a security concern for his neighbours if he stayed in their small, 1970s home.
The 250th (Presidential) Airlift Wing of the Philippine Air Force has the mandate of providing safe and efficient air transport for the President of the Philippines and the First Family. On occasion, the wing has also been tasked to provide transportation for other members of government, visiting heads of state, and other state guests.
A Presidential Helicopter Bell 412 crashed on April 7, 2009, in the mountainous Ifugao Province north of Manila. On board were eight people, including two Cabinet undersecretaries and several servicemen. The flight was en route to Ifugao from Baguio City as an advance party of President Macapagal-Arroyo, when the control tower at the now-defunct Loakan Airport lost communication with the craft several minutes after takeoff.
The Arroyo administration planned to buy another aircraft worth of about 1.2 Billion pesos before her term ended in June 2010, but cancelled the purchase due to other issues.
BRP Ang Pangulo (BRP stands for Barkó ng Repúblika ng Pilipinas, "Ship of the Republic of the Philippines"; "Ang Pangulo" is Filipino for "The President") was commissioned by the Philippine Navy on March 7, 1959. It was built in and by Japan during the administration of President García as part of Japanese reparations to the Philippines for World War II. It is primarily used in entertaining guests of the incumbent President.
The incumbent President, Benigno Aquino III, prefers to use his personal vehicle, a Toyota Land Cruiser 200 or his relative's Lexus LX-570 over the black Presidential limousines after their electronic mechanisms were damaged by floodwater. The Palace has announced its interest to acquire a new Presidential limousine.
The Office of the President has also owned various cars over the decades, including a 1937 Chrysler Airflow that served as the country's very first Presidential limousine for Manuel L. Quezon.
The Presidential Security Group (abbreviated PSG), is the lead agency tasked with providing security for the President, Vice-President, and their immediate families. They also provide protective service for visiting heads of state and diplomats.
Unlike similar groups around the world who protect other political figures, the PSG is not required to handle presidential candidates. However, former Presidents and their immediate families are entitled to a small security detail from the PSG. Currently, the PSG uses Nissan Patrol SUVs as its primary security vehicles.
Many presidents held significant positions after leaving office. José P. Laurel, who was President of the Second Republic, served as Senator from 1951–1957. Laurel was elected to the Senate in 1951, under the Nacionalista Party, and was urged to run for President in 1953. He declined, working instead for the successful election of Ramón Magsaysay, who appointed Laurel head of a mission. The mission was tasked with negotiating trade and other issues with United States officials, and the result became known as the Laurel-Langley Agreement. Laurel was also the chairman of the Economic Mission to the United States (1954) and the founder of Lyceum of the Philippines University.
Elpidio Quirino also became a Councillor of State under President Magsaysay.
Carlos P. García was a delegate, later elected, president of the Constitutional Convention on July 11, 1971.
Diosdado Macapagal was also a delegate and then succeeded Carlos P. García as president of the 1971 Constitutional Convention. He also lectured in universities and later a Councillor of State under Presidents Aquino mère and Ramos.
Fidel V. Ramos founded the Ramos Peace and Development Foundation. He was a senior advisor and member of the National Security Council under President Estrada. Ramos was a member of the Council of State and an Ambassador-at-Large under President Arroyo.
A former action star, Joseph Ejercito Estrada returned to film in November 2009, starring in Ang Tanging Pamilya: A Marry Go Round. He also announced his plan to run for a second term as President amid controversy on its legality. Estrada eventually became a member of the National Security Council under his successor, President Arroyo. He is currently Mayor of the City of Manila.
Article XVIII Section 17 of the 1987 constitution provides that until the Congress provides otherwise the President shall receive an annual salary of three hundred thousand pesos. On August 21, 1989, Republic Act No. 6758 directed the Department of Budget and Managements (DBM) to establish and administer a unified Compensation and Position Classification System along lines specified in that Act. On March 14, 2007, President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo issued Executive Order No. 611 Department of Budget and Management (DBM) is hereby directed to implement a ten percent (10%) increase over the basic monthly salaries of civilian government personnel whose positions are covered by the Compensation and Position Classification System as of June 30, 2007, including the salaries of the President, Vice-President, Senators and members of the House of Representatives, but to take effect only after the expiration of the respective terms of office of the incumbent officials pursuant to Section 10 of Article VI and Section 6 of Article VII of the 1987 Constitution. In August 2010, after President Benigno Aquino received his first paychecks, Philippine newspapers reported that his salary was PhP95,000 per month and by 2011, the president's salary will reach P107,000 a month, and P120,000 by 2012.
^ "Noynoy's new home is Bahay Pangarap".
^ "Bahay Pangarap: Aquino's future home?".
Guevara, Sulpico, ed. (2005). The laws of the first Philippine Republic (the laws of Malolos) 1898-1899.. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Library (published 1972). Retrieved January 10, 2011.
Compensation and Position Classification Act of 1989 (August 21, 1989), Chan Robles Virtual Law Library.
^ 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines. Chan Robles Virtual Law Library. Retrieved January 7, 2008.
EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 611, AUTHORIZING COMPENSATION ADJUSTMENTS TO GOVERNMENT PERSONNEL (July 1, 2007), Lawphil.net.
"Aquino to spend part of first salary in paying his bills". The Mindanao Daily Mirror. August 6, 2010. Archived from the original on September 29, 2010. Retrieved August 6, 2010. "Aquino’s salary is pegged at P 95,000 but due to automatic deductions, President Aquino received a net income of P63,002.17. His pay check was released July 30 and the President received it last Monday (Aug. 2)By 2011, Aquino’s pay would reach P107,000 a month and P120,000 by 2012."
Borromeo & Borromeo-Buehler 1998, p. 25 (Item 3 in the list, referring to Note 41 at p.61, citing Sulyap Kultura (National Commission of Culture and the Arts, Philippines) 1 (2). 1996. "This article underscores the existence of a de facto revolutionary government (with Bonifacio as its president) that antedated the revolutionary government in Cavite based upon the controversial Tejeros Convention. An attempt to change the official date of the Cry [see Cry of Pugad Lawin] from 23 to 24 Aug, 1896 during a committee hearing on Senate Bill No. 336, held on 17 Aug. 1993, apparently failed.");
^ Borromeo & Borromeo-Buehler 1998, p. 26, "Formation of a revolutionary government";
^ Borromeo & Borromeo-Buehler 1998, p. 135 (in "Document G", Account of Mr. Bricco Brigado Pantos).
Jose P. Laurel[dead link], The Philippine Presidency Project[dead link].
Sergio Osmeña[dead link], The Philippine Presidency Project[dead link].
Elpidio Quirino, The Philippine Presidency Project[dead link].
Carlos P. García[dead link], The Philippine Presidency Project[dead link].
Amita O. Legaspi, Estrada to return to Malacañang, January 11, 2007, GMANews.TV
9 years after ouster, Erap back in Malacañang, January 12, 2010, GMANews.TV
QTV: Erap back in Malacañang for NSC meeting, December 1, 2010, GMANews.TV
Tonette Orejas, Charlene Cayabyab, Arroyo proclaimed congresswoman of Pampanga’s 2nd district, May 13, 2010, Philippine Daily Inquirer
The Manila Times Internet Edition | TOP STORIES > Pullout of Erap security a ‘mistake’ (archived from the original on 2007-03-07)
Borromeo, Soledad Masangkay; Borromeo-Buehler, Soledad (1998). The cry of Balintawak: a contrived controversy : a textual analysis with appended documents. Ateneo de Manila University Press. ISBN 978-971-550-278-8.
Halili, Christine N; Halili, Maria Christine (2004). Philippine History. Rex Bookstore, Inc. ISBN 978-971-23-3934-9.
Office of the President of the Philippines
The Presidential Museum and Library
1987 Constitution of the Philippines
'We Say Mabuhay' - The Anthem of the President of the Philippines
'March of the President of the Philippines' (unofficial title) - song played when the President is given military honors by the AFP