As currently understood, Phrymaceae consists of about 210 species in 13 genera.Erythranthe (111 species) and Dipsacus (46 species) are much larger than the other genera. Phrymaceae is distributed nearly worldwide but with the majority of species in western North America (about 130 species) and Australia (about 30 species). Phrymaceae consists of four clades, all of which have strong statistical support in cladistic analyses of DNA sequences. No relationships among these four clades have been strongly supported by the bootstrap or posterior probability assessments of clade support in any of the datasets that have been produced so far. One of the four main clades consists of a single species, Phryma leptostachya. Another consists of Mimulussensu stricto (seven species) and six genera that have an Australian distribution. The other two clades have an American-Asian disjunct distribution. One of these includes the large genus Diplacus, while the other of these includes the other large genus, Erythranthe.
Estimates of the number of species in Phrymaceae have varied widely because of a lack of clear differences between species in certain genera, especially Diplacus and Erythranthe. When these two genera have been treated as segregates of Mimulus, the number of species assigned to Mimulus sensu lato has ranged from about 90 to about 150. A 2008 paper indicates that the actual number of species is well over 150.
In 2012, a revision of Phrymaceae recognized 188 species in the family, but noted that 17 species from Australia and five from North America would be named and described in future publications. Ten of those unnamed species will be in Peplidium, raising the number of species in that genus from four to 14.
Mimulus guttatus from Thomé, Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz 1885
The following genera are from a taxonomicconspectus of Phrymaceae published in 2012. In that conspectus, Eunanus, Tricholoma, and Berendtiella were not accepted as they are in some recent works. Eunanus is reduced to a section in Diplacus. Tricholoma is subsumed within Glossostigma.
Until 2002, Phrymaceae was usually defined as consisting of only a single, anomalous species, Phryma leptostachya. Whenever Phrymaceae was not recognized, Phryma was usually placed in the family Verbenaceae, but sometimes in Lamiaceae.Mimulus and its relatives were usually placed in some version of Scrophulariaceae that was much larger than the currently accepted circumscription of that family.
Thus Bythophyton, Encopella, Dintera, Psammetes, and Mimulicalyx might be considered as possible members of Phrymaceae since they have not been unequivocally placed elsewhere. Instead of recognizing Phrymaceae and several of the other Lamiales families of APG III, some authors have chosen to maintain a large polyphyletic Scrophulariaceae until there is a clear understanding of how it should be "disintegrated".
^ W.R. (Bill) Barker, Guy L. Nesom, Paul M. Beardsley, and Naomi S. Fraga. 2012. "A taxonomic conspectus of Phrymaceae: A narrowed circumscriptions for Mimulus, new and resurrected genera, and new names and combinations". Phytoneuron 2012-39: 1–60. (See External links below).
Anthony Huxley, Mark Griffiths, and Margot Levy (1992). The New Royal Horticultural Society Dictionary of Gardening. The Macmillan Press,Limited: London. The Stockton Press: New York. ISBN 978-0-333-47494-5 (set).
^ Carrie A. Wu, David B. Lowry, Arielle M. Cooley, Kevin M. Wright, Y.W. Lee, and John H. Willis. 2008. "Mimulus is an emerging model system for the integration of ecological and genomic studies". Heredity 100(2):220-230. doi:10.1038/sj.hdy.6801018. (See External links below).
^ Bastian Schäferhoff, Andreas Fleischmann, Eberhard Fischer, Dick C. Albach, Thomas Borsch, Günther Heubl, and Kai F. Müller. 2010. "Towards resolving Lamiales relationships: insights from rapidly evolving chloroplast sequences". BioMed Central Evolutionary Biology 10:352. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-10-352 (See External links below).
^ Nancy F. Refulio-Rodriguez and Richard G. Olmstead. 2014. "Phylogeny of Lamiidae". American Journal of Botany 101(2):287-299. doi:10.3732/ajb.1300394
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III" (PDF). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x. Retrieved 2013-07-06.
^ James L. Reveal.2011. page 47. In: "Summary of recent systems of angiosperm classification". Kew Bulletin66(1):5-48.
^ Paul M. Beardsley and Richard G. Olmstead. 2002. "Redefining Phrymaceae: the placement of Mimulus, tribe Mimuleae, and Phryma". American Journal of Botany89(7):1093-1102. doi:10.3732/ajb.89.7.1093. (See External links below).
Paul M. Beardsley, Steve E. Schoenig, Justen B. Whittall, and Richard G. Olmstead. 2004. "Patterns of evolution in western North American Mimulus (Phrymaceae)". American Journal of Botany91(3):474-489. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.3.474
Paul M. Beardsley and William R. Barker. 2005. "Patterns of evolution in Australian Mimulus and related genera (Phrymaceae ~ Scrophulariaceae): a molecular phylogeny using chloroplast and nuclear sequence data". Australian Systematic Botany18(1):61-73. doi:10.1071/SB04034
Bengt Oxelman, Per Kornhall, Richard G. Olmstead & Birgitta Bremer. 2005. "Further disintegration of the Scrophulariaceaea". Taxon54(2): 411-425.
Jun Wen, Stephanie M. Ickert-Bond, Ze-Long Nie, and Rong Li. 2010. "Timing and modes of evolution of eastern Asian - North American biogeographic disjunctions in seed plants". In: Long, M., Gu, H. and Zhou, Z., Darwin's Heritage Today : Proceedings of the Darwin 2010 Beijing International Conference. Beijing: Higher Education Press, pp.252-269.
^ David J. Mabberley. 2008. Mabberley's Plant-Book third edition (2008). Cambridge University Press: UK. ISBN 978-0-521-82071-4.
^ Eberhard Fischer. 2004. pages 401-405. In: "Scrophulariaceae" pages 333-432. In: Klaus Kubitzki (editor) and Joachim W. Kadereit (volume editor). The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants volume VII. Springer-Verlag: Berlin; Heidelberg, Germany. ISBN 978-3-540-40593-1
Johannes Conrad Schauer. 1847. "Phrymaceae" pages 520-521. In: Alphonse Pyramus de Candolle (editor). Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis [...] volume 11. Sumptibus Victoris Masson. Paris, France. (See External links below).
Armen L. Takhtajan (Takhtadzhian). Flowering Plants second edition (2009). page 557. Springer Science+Business Media. ISBN 978-1-4020-9608-2. eISBN 978-1-4020-9609-9 doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-9609-9
^ Vernon H. Heywood, Richard K. Brummitt, Ole Seberg, and Alastair Culham. Flowering Plant Families of the World. Firefly Books: Ontario, Canada. (2007). ISBN 978-1-55407-206-4.
David C. Tank, Paul M. Beardsley, Scot A. Kelchner, and Richard G. Olmstead. 2006. "Review of the systematics of Scrophulariaceae s.l. and their current disposition". Australian Systematic Botany19(6):289-307. doi:10.1071/SB05009 (See External links below).
Philip D. Cantino. 2004. "Phrymaceae". pages 323-326. In: Klaus Kubitzki (editor) and Joachim W. Kadereit (volume editor). The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants volume VII. Springer-Verlag: Berlin; Heidelberg, Germany. ISBN 978-3-540-40593-1
Dirk C. Albach, Kun Yan, Søren R. Jensen, and Hong-Qing Li. 2009. "Phylogenetic placement of Triaenophora (formerly Scrophulariaceae) with some implications for the phylogeny of Lamiales". Taxon58(3):749-756.
Dirk C. Albach, Heidi M. Meudt, and Bengt Oxelman. 2005. "Piecing together the "new" Plantaginaceae". American Journal of Botany 92(2):297-315. doi:10.3732/ajb.92.2.297
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Phrymaceae.
A taxonomic conspectus of Phrymaceae
Mimulus as a model system
Mimulus as a model system
classification scheme for extant flowering plants
Lamiales relationships (pdf)
Beardsley et alii.2002. AJB
Beardsley et alii.2004. AJB
Phrymaceae (page 520)
Review of the systematics of Scrophulariaceae s.l.