Newfoundland and Labrador (/ˈnjuːfʊndlændændˈlæbrədɔr/, locally [nuːfəndˈlænd]; French: Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador) is the easternmost province of Canada. Situated in the country's Atlantic region, it incorporates the island of Newfoundland and mainland Labrador to the northwest, with a combined area of 405,212 square kilometres (156,500 sq mi). In 2013, the province's population was estimated at 526,702. Approximately 92 percent of the province's population lives on the Island of Newfoundland (including its associated smaller islands), of which more than half live on the Avalon Peninsula. The province is Canada's most linguistically homogenous, with 97.6% of residents reporting English (Newfoundland English) as their mother tongue in the 2006 census. Historically, Newfoundland was also home to unique varieties of French and Irish, as well as the now-extinct Beothuk language. In Labrador, local dialects of Innu-aimun and Inuktitut are also spoken.
The name Newfoundland is derived from English as "New Found Land" (a translation from the Portuguese Terra Nova, still reflected in the province's French-language name, "Terre-Neuve"). The origin of Labrador is credited to João Fernandes Lavrador, the Portuguese navigator who explored the region.
Newfoundland and Labrador is the most easterly province in Canada, and is located on the north-eastern corner of North America. The Strait of Belle Isle separates the province into two geographical divisions, Labrador, which is a large land mass connected to mainland Canada, and Newfoundland, which is an island in the Atlantic Ocean. The province also includes over 7,000 tiny islands. Newfoundland is roughly triangular, with each side being approximately 400 km (250 mi), and has an area of 108,860 km2 (42,030 sq mi). Newfoundland and its associated small islands have a total area of 111,390 km2 (43,010 sq mi). Newfoundland extends between latitudes 46°36′N and 51°38′N.
Labrador is an irregular shape: the western part of its border with Quebec is the drainage divide of the Labrador Peninsula. Lands drained by rivers that flow into the Atlantic Ocean are part of Labrador, the rest belong to Quebec. Labrador's extreme northern tip, at 60°22′N, shares a short border with Nunavut. Labrador's area (including associated small islands) is 294,330 km2 (113,640 sq mi). Together, Newfoundland and Labrador make up 4.06% of Canada's area.
The north-south extent of the province (46°36′N to 60°22′N), prevalent westerly winds, cold ocean currents and local factors such as mountains and coastline combine to create the various climates of the province. Northern Labrador is classified as a polartundra climate, southern Labrador has a subarctic climate while most of Newfoundland would be humid continental climate, Dfb: Cool summer subtype.
Newfoundland and Labrador is home to a variety of climates and weather. One of the main reasons for this diversity is the geography of the province. The island portion of the province spans 5 degrees of latitude, which is comparable to that of the Great Lakes. The province has been divided into six climate types, but in broader terms Newfoundland has a cool summer subtype of a humid continental climate, which is greatly influenced by the sea since no part of the island is more than 100 km (62 mi) from the ocean. Northern Labrador is classified as a polartundra climate, southern Labrador has a subarctic climate.
Monthly average temperatures, rainfall and snowfall for four communities are shown in the attached graphs. St. John's represents the east coast, Gander the interior of the island, Corner Brook the west coast of the island and Wabush the interior of Labrador. The detailed information and information for 73 communities in the province is available from a government website. The data used in making the graphs is the average taken over thirty years. Error bars on the temperature graph indicate the range of daytime highs and night time lows. Snowfall is the total amount that fell during the month, not the amount accumulated on the ground. This distinction is particularly important for St. John's where a heavy snowfall can be followed by rain so that no snow remains on the ground.
Surface water temperatures on the Atlantic side reach a summer average of 12 °C (54 °F) inshore and 9 °C (48 °F) offshore to winter lows of −1 °C (30 °F) inshore and 2 °C (36 °F) offshore. Sea temperatures on the west coast are warmer than Atlantic side by 1 to 3 °C (1 to 5 °F). The sea keeps winter temperatures slightly higher and summer temperatures a little lower on the coast than at places inland. The maritime climate produces more variable weather, ample precipitation in a variety of forms, greater humidity, lower visibility, more clouds, less sunshine, and higher winds than a continental climate.
Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for selected locations in Newfoundland and Labrador
The Beothuk tribe of Newfoundland is extinct. It is represented in museum, historical and archaeological records.
Human habitation in Newfoundland and Labrador can be traced back about 9000 years. The Maritime Archaic peoples were groups of Archaic cultures of sea-mammal hunters in the subarctic. They prospered from approximately 7,000 BC to 1,500 BC along the Atlantic Coast of North America. Their settlements included longhouses and boat-topped temporary or seasonal houses. They engaged in long-distance trade, using as currency white chert, a rock quarried from northern Labrador to Maine. The Southern branch of these people was established on the north peninsula of Newfoundland by 5,000 years ago. Maritime Archaic period is best known from a mortuary site in Newfoundland at Port au Choix.
The Maritime Archaic peoples were gradually displaced by people of the Dorset Culture (Late Paleo-Eskimo) who also occupied Port au Choix. The number of their sites discovered on Newfoundland indicate they may have been the most numerous group of Aboriginal people to live there. They thrived from about 2000 BC to 1200 years ago. Many of their sites were located on exposed headlands and outer islands. They were more oriented to the sea than earlier peoples, and had developed sleds and boats similar to kayaks. They could burn seal blubber in soapstone lamps.
"Many of these sites, such as Port au Choix, recently excavated by Memorial archaeologist, Priscilla Renouf, are quite large and show evidence of a long-term commitment to place. Renouf has excavated huge amounts of harp seal bones at Port au Choix, indicating that this place was a prime location for the hunting of these animals."
The Dorset Culture (800 BC – 1500) were highly adapted to living in a very cold climate, and much of their food came from hunting sea mammals through holes in the ice. The massive decline in sea-ice which the Medieval Warm Period produced would have had a devastating impact upon their way of life.
The appearance of the Beothuk culture is believed the most recent cultural manifestation of peoples who first migrated from Labrador to Newfoundland around 1 AD. The Inuit, found mostly in Labrador, are the descendants of what anthropologists call the Thule culture, who emerged from western Alaska around 1000 AD and spread eastwards across the High Arctic, reaching Labrador around 1300–1500. Researchers believe that the Dorset culture lacked the dogs, larger weapons and other technologies that gave the expanding Inuit society an advantage. With the passage of time, groups started to focus on resources available to them locally.
The inhabitants eventually organized themselves into small bands of a few families, grouped into larger tribes and chieftainships. The Innu are the inhabitants of an area they refer to as Nitassinan, which comprises most of what is now referred to as northeastern Quebec and Labrador. Their subsistence activities were historically centred on hunting and trapping caribou, deer and small game. Coastal clans also practised agriculture, fished, and managed maple sugarbush. The Innu engaged in tribal warfare along the coast of Labrador with the Inuit groups that had significant populations.
The Míkmaq of southern Newfoundland spent most of their time on the shores harvesting seafood; during the winter they would move inland to the woods to hunt. Over time, the Mi'kmaq and Innu divided their lands into traditional "districts". Each district was independently governed and had a district chief and a council. The council members were band chiefs, elders, and other worthy community leaders. In addition to the district councils, the Mi'kmaq tribes also had (have) a Grand Council or Santé Mawiómi, which according to oral tradition was formed before 1600.
The oldest confirmed accounts of European contact date from a thousand years ago as described in the Viking (Norse) Icelandic Sagas. Around the year 1001, the sagas refer to Leif Ericson landing in three places to the west, the first two being Helluland (possibly Baffin Island) and Markland (possibly Labrador). Leif's third landing was at a place he called Vinland (possibly Newfoundland). Archaeological evidence of a Norse settlement was found in L'Anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland, which was declared a World Heritage site by UNESCO in 1978. There are several other unconfirmed accounts of European discovery and exploration. One tale by men from the Channel Islands being blown off course in the late 15th century into a strange land full of fish, and another from Portuguese maps that depict the Terra do Bacalhau, or land of codfish, west of the Azores. The earliest, though, is the Voyage of Saint Brendan, the fantastical account of an Irish monk who made a sea voyage in the early 6th century. While the story itself became a part of myth and legend, some historians believe it is based on fact.
In 1496 John Cabot obtained a charter from English King Henry VII to "sail to all parts, countries and seas of the East, the West and of the North, under our banner and ensign and to set up our banner on any new-found-land" and on June 24, 1497 landed in Cape Bonavista. Historians disagree on whether Cabot landed in Nova Scotia in 1497 or in Newfoundland, or possibly Maine, if he landed at all, but Bonavista is recognised by the governments of Canada and the United Kingdom as being Cabot's "official" landing place. In 1499 and 1500, Portuguese mariners João Fernandes Lavrador and Pêro de Barcelos explored and mapped the coast, the former's name appearing as "Labrador" on topographical maps of the period. Based on the Treaty of Tordesillas, the Portuguese Crown claimed it had territorial rights in the area visited by John Cabot in 1497 and 1498. Subsequently, in 1501 and 1502 the Corte-Real brothers explored Newfoundland and Labrador, claiming them as part of the Portuguese Empire. In 1506, king Manuel I of Portugal created taxes for the cod fisheries in Newfoundland waters.João Álvares Fagundes and Pêro de Barcelos established seasonal fishing outposts in Newfoundland and Nova Scotia around 1521, and older Portuguese settlements may have existed. Sir Humphrey Gilbert, provided with letters patent from Queen Elizabeth I, landed in St John's in August 1583, and formally took possession of the island.
In 1583 Newfoundland became England's first possession in North America and one of the earliest permanent English colonies in the New World when it was claimed by Sir Humphrey Gilbert for Queen Elizabeth. Though English fishing boats had visited Newfoundland continuously since Cabot's second voyage in 1498 and seasonal fishing camps had existed for a century prior, similar was true of Basque, French, and Portuguese ships and camps, thus pressure to secure the island from foreign control led to the appointment of Proprietary Governors to establish colonial settlements on the island from 1610 to 1728. John Guy was governor of the first settlement at Cuper's Cove. Other settlements were Bristol's Hope, Renews, New Cambriol, South Falkland and Avalon which became a province in 1623. The first governor given jurisdiction over all of Newfoundland was Sir David Kirke in 1638.
Explorers soon realized that the waters around Newfoundland had the best fishing in the North Atlantic. By 1620, 300 fishing boats worked the Grand Bank, employing some 10,000 sailors; many continuing to come from Basque Country, Normandy, or Brittany. They dried and salted the cod on the coast and sold it to Spain and Portugal. Heavy investment by Sir George Calvert, 1st Baron Baltimore, in the 1620s in wharves, warehouses, and fishing stations failed to pay off. French raids hurt the business, and the weather was terrible, so he redirected his attention to his other colony in Maryland. After Calvert left, small-scale entrepreneurs such as Sir David Kirke made good use of the facilities. Kirke became the first governor in 1639. A triangular trade with New England, the West Indies, and Europe gave Newfoundland an important economic role. By the 1670s there were 1700 permanent residents and another 4500 in the summer months.
Basque fishermen, who had been fishing cod shoals off Newfoundland's coasts since the beginning of the sixteenth century, founded Plaisance (today Placentia), a haven which started to be also used by French fishermen. In 1655, France appointed a governor in Plaisance, thus starting a formal French colonization period of Newfoundland as well as a period of periodic war and unrest between England and France. The Mi'kmaq, as allies with the French, were amenable to limited French settlement in their midst and fought with them against the English. English attacks on Placentia provoked retaliation by New France explorer Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville who during King William's War in the 1690s destroyed nearly every English settlement on the island. The entire population of the English colony was either killed, captured for ransom, or sentenced to expulsion to England, with the exception of the those who withstood the attack at Carbonear Island and those in the then remote Bonavista. After France lost political control of the area after the Siege of Port Royal in 1710, the Mí'kmaq engaged in warfare with the British throughout Dummer's War, King George's War, Father Le Loutre's War and the French and Indian War. The French colonization period lasted until the Treaty of Utrecht, in 1713, which ended the War of the Spanish Succession and France ceded its claims to Newfoundland to the British (as well as its claims to the shores of Hudson Bay) and to the French possessions in Acadia. Afterward, under the supervision of the last French governor, the French population of Plaisance moved to Île Royale (now Cape Breton Island), part of Acadia which remained then under French control.
The 1775 map published by James Cook of Newfoundland and parts of Labrador
In the Treaty of Utrecht (1713), France had acknowledged British ownership of the island. However, in the Seven Years' War (1756–63), control of Newfoundland once again became a major source of conflict between Britain, France and Spain who all pressed for a share in the valuable fishery there. Britain's victories around the globe led William Pitt to insist that nobody other than Britain should have access to Newfoundland. The Battle of Signal Hill was fought in Newfoundland in 1762, when a French force landed and tried to occupy the island, only to be repulsed by the British.
By the Treaty of Utrecht (1713), French fishermen were given the right to land and cure fish on the "French Shore" on the western coast. They had a permanent base on nearby St. Pierre and Miquelon islands; the French gave up their rights in 1904. In 1783, the British signed the Treaty of Paris with the United States that gave American fishermen similar rights along the coast. These rights were reaffirmed by treaties in 1818, 1854 and 1871 and confirmed by arbitration in 1910.
Newfoundland remained a colony until acquiring Dominion status in 1907. A dominion constituted a self-governing state of the British Empire or British Commonwealth and the Dominion of Newfoundland was relatively autonomous from British rule.
The Union Flag – official flag of the Dominion of Newfoundland from 1931 to 1949 and official flag of the province of Newfoundland until 1980.
Newfoundland's own regiment, the 1st Newfoundland Regiment, fought in the First World War. On July 1, 1916, the German Army wiped out nearly the entire regiment at Beaumont Hamel on the first day on the Somme. The regiment went on to serve with distinction in several subsequent battles, earning the prefix "Royal". Despite people's pride in the accomplishments of the regiment, the Dominion's war debt due to the regiment and the cost of maintaining a trans-island railway led to increased and ultimately unsustainable government debt in the post-war era.
It was during this period of dominion status that the Labrador mainland and the island of Newfoundland merged into a single political entity. Since the early 1800s, Newfoundland and Quebec (or Lower Canada) had been in a border dispute over the Labrador region. In 1927, however, the British government ruled that the area known as modern day Labrador was to be considered part of the Dominion of Newfoundland.
Commission of Government and confederation with Canada
Due to Newfoundland's high debt load, arising from World War I and construction of the Newfoundland railroad, and decreasing revenue, due to the collapse of fish prices, the Newfoundland legislature voted itself out of existence in 1933, in exchange for loan guarantees by the Crown and a promise it would be re-established. On February 16, 1934, the Commission of Government was sworn in, ending 79 years of responsible government. The Commission consisted of seven persons appointed by the British government. For 15 years no elections took place, and no legislature was convened.
When prosperity returned with World War II, agitation began to end the Commission, and reinstate responsible government. But, the British government created the National Convention in 1946, reflecting efforts in self-determination among European nationalities that followed WWII. The Convention was formally tasked to advise on the future of Newfoundland. Chaired by Judge Cyril J. Fox, it consisted of 45 elected members from across the province.
How the electorate voted in the 1948 referendum
Several motions were made by Joey Smallwood (a member of the convention who later was elected as the first premier of Newfoundland) to examine joining Canada by sending a delegation to Ottawa. The first motion was defeated, although the Convention later decided to send delegations to both London and Ottawa to explore alternatives. In January 1948, the National Convention voted against putting Confederation onto the referendum 29 to 16; but, this vote was overruled by the British, which controlled the National Convention and the subsequent referendum.
Three main factions actively campaigned during the leadup to the referendums. Smallwood led the Confederate Association (CA), advocating union with the Canadian Confederation. They campaigned through a newspaper known as The Confederate. The Responsible Government League (RGL), led by Peter Cashin, advocated an independent Newfoundland with a return to responsible government. Their newspaper was The Independent. A third, smaller Economic Union Party (EUP), led by Chesley Crosbie, advocated closer economic ties with the United States. The EUP failed to gain much attention, and merged with the RGL after the first referendum.
The first referendum took place on June 3, 1948; 44.5% of people voted for responsible government, 41.1% voted for confederation with Canada, while 14.3% voted for Commission of Government. Since none of the choices had gained over 50%, a second referendum with only the two more popular choices was held on July 22, 1948. The official outcome of that referendum was 52.3% for confederation with Canada and 47.7% for responsible (independent) government.
After the referendum, a seven-man delegation was picked by the British governor to effectively rubber stamp Canada's offer on behalf of Newfoundland. After six of the seven-man delegation signed, the British Government passed the British North America Act, 1949 through Parliament. Newfoundland officially joined Canada at midnight, March 31, 1949.
Following the declassification of secret Canadian and British government communications and internal government reports of the years prior to the referendum, historians have established that the British government (which effectively was also the Newfoundland government) had conspired with the Canadian government to manoeuvre Newfoundland into Confederation, in exchange for forgiveness of Britain's war debt.
Subsequent to the referendum, there has been hearsay that the referendum was narrowly won by the responsible government side, but the result was fixed by the British governor. The governor ordered the ballots from the referendum to be burned shortly afterward. Independent oversight of the vote tallying was lacking.
The blue is meant to represent the sea, the white represents snow and ice, the red represents the efforts and struggles of the people, and the gold represents the confidence of Newfoundlanders and Labradorians. The blue triangles are a tribute to the Union Flag, and represent the British heritage of the province. The two red triangles represent Labrador (the mainland portion of the province) and the island. In Pratt's words, the gold arrow points towards a "brighter future".
The Newfoundland tri-colour flag – unofficial (1870s or later)
The "Pink, White and Green" is a flag of 19th-century origins that enjoyed popularity in portions of the island in the late 19th century. It was flown on some vessels into the 20th century. It was never adopted by the Newfoundland government.
A 1976 article reported that the tricolour flag was created in 1843 by then Roman Catholic Bishop of Newfoundland, Michael Anthony Fleming. The colours were intended to represent the symbolic union of Newfoundland's historically dominant ethnic/religious groups: English, Scottish and Irish. Though popular, there is no historical evidence to support this legend.
Recent scholarship suggests that the flag was first used in the 1870s or later by the Roman Catholic "Star of the Sea" fishermen's association. It resembled the unofficial flag of Ireland. The tri-colour flag remained relatively unknown outside of St. John's and the Avalon peninsula until the growth of the tourist industry since the late 20th century. It has been used as an emblem on items in gift shops in St. John's and other towns. Some tourists assume it is the Irish flag.
The "Pink, White and Green" has been adopted by some residents as a symbol of ties with Irish heritage and as a political statement. Many of the province's Protestants, who make up approximately 60% of the province's total population (with 57% claiming British Isles descent), consider it a Catholic flag.
Similarly, many of the province's Catholics, approximately 37% of the total population (with roughly 22% of the population claiming Irish ancestry), think that the current provincial flag does not satisfactorily represent them. But, a government-sponsored poll in 2005 revealed that 75% of Newfoundlanders rejected adoption of the Tricolour flag as the province's official flag.
Newfoundland and Labrador has a population of 514,536, more than half of whom live on the Avalon Peninsula of Newfoundland, site of the capital and historical early settlement. Since 2006, the population of the province has started to increase for the first time since the early 1990s. In the 2006 census the population of the province decreased by 1.5% compared to 2001, and stood at 505,469. But, by the 2011 census, the population had risen by 1.8%.
Population of Newfoundland and Labrador since 1951
The largest single religious denomination by number of adherents according to the 2001 census was the Roman Catholic Church, at 36.9% of the province's population (187,405 members). The major Protestant denominations make up 59.7% of the population, with the largest group being the Anglican Church of Canada at 26.1% of the total population (132,680 members), the United Church of Canada at 17.0% (86,420 members), and the Salvation Army at 7.9% (39,955 members), with other Protestant denominations in much smaller numbers. The Pentecostal churches made up 6.7% of the population with 33,840 members. Non-Christians made up only 2.7% of the total population, with the majority of those respondents indicating "no religion" (2.5% of the total population).
According to the 2001 Canadian census, the largest ethnic group in Newfoundland and Labrador is English (39.4%), followed by Irish (19.7%), Scottish (6.0%), French (5.5%), and First Nations (3.2%). While half of all respondents also identified their ethnicity as "Canadian," 38% report their ethnicity as "Newfoundlander" in a 2003 Statistics Canada Ethnic Diversity Survey.
For many years, Newfoundland and Labrador had experienced a depressed economy. Following the collapse of the cod fishery during the early 1990s, the province suffered record unemployment rates and the population decreased by roughly 60,000. Due to a major energy and resources boom, the provincial economy has had a major turnaround since the turn of the 21st century. Unemployment rates decreased, the population stabilized and had moderate growth. The province has gained record surpluses, which has rid it of its status as a "have not" province.
Economic growth, gross domestic product (GDP), exports and employment resumed in 2010, after suffering the impacts of the late-2000s recession. Total capital investment in the province grew to $6.2 billion, an increase of 23.0% compared to 2009. GDP reached $28.1 billion, compared to $25.0 billion in 2009.
Service industries accounted for the largest share of GDP, especially financial services, health care and public administration. Other significant industries are mining, oil production and manufacturing. The total workforce in 2010 was 263,800 people. Per capita GDP in 2008 was $61,763, higher than the national average and third only to Alberta and Saskatchewan out of Canadian provinces.
Mines in Labrador, the iron ore mine at Wabush/Labrador City, and the nickel mine in Voisey's Bay produced a total of $3.3 billion worth of ore in 2010. A mine at Duck Pond (30 km (18 mi) south of the now-closed mine at Buchans), started producing copper, zinc, silver and gold in 2007, and prospecting for new ore bodies continues. Mining accounted for 3.5% of the provincial GDP in 2006. The province produces 55% of Canada's total iron ore.Quarries producing dimension stone such as slate and granite, account for less than $10 million worth of material per year.Oil production from offshore oil platforms on the Hibernia, White Rose and Terra Novaoil fields on the Grand Banks was of 110,000,000 barrels (17,000,000 m3), which contributed to more than 15% of the province's GDP in 2006. Total production from the Hibernia field from 1997 to 2006 was 733,000,000 barrels (116,500,000 m3) with an estimated value of $36 billion. This will increase with the inclusion of the latest project, Hebron. Remaining reserves are estimated at almost 2 billion barrels (320×10^6 m3) as of December 31, 2006. Exploration for new reserves is ongoing.
On June 16, 2009, provincial premier Danny Williams announced a tentative agreement to expand the Hibernia Oil Field. The government negotiated a 10-per-cent equity stake in the Hibernia South expansion, which will add an estimated $10 billion to Newfoundland and Labrador's treasury.
The fishing industry remains an important part of the provincial economy, employing roughly 20,000 and contributing over $440 million to the GDP. The combined harvest of fish such as cod, haddock, halibut, herring and mackerel was 150,000 tonnes (165,000 tons) valued at about $130 million in 2006. Shellfish, such as crab, shrimp and clams, accounted for 195,000 tonnes (215,000 tons) with a value of $316 million in the same year. The value of products from the seal hunt was $55 million.Aquaculture is a new industry for the province, which in 2006 produced over 10,000 tonnes of Atlantic salmon, mussels and steelhead trout worth over $50 million.
Newsprint is produced by one paper mill in Corner Brook with a capacity of 420,000 tonnes (462,000 tons) per year. The value of newsprint exports varies greatly from year to year, depending on the global market price. Lumber is produced by numerous mills in Newfoundland.
Apart from seafood processing, paper manufacture and oil refining, manufacturing in the province consists of smaller industries producing food, brewing and other beverage production, and footwear.
Tourism is also a significant contributor to the province's economy. In 2006 nearly 500,000 non-resident tourists visited Newfoundland and Labrador, spending an estimated $366 million. Tourism is most popular throughout the months of June–September, the warmest months of the year with the longest hours of daylight.
Newfoundland and Labrador has a somewhat different sports culture than the rest of Canada, owing in part to its long history separate from the rest of Canada and under British rule. Ice hockey, however, remains popular; the St. John's IceCaps play professionally at the Mile One Centre in St. John's, and the Newfoundland Senior Hockey League has teams around the island. Since the departure of the St. John's Fog Devils in 2008, Newfoundland and Labrador is the only province in Canada to not have a team in the Canadian Hockey League (should one ever join it would be placed in the QMJHL, which hosted the Fog Devils and has jurisdiction over Atlantic Canada).
Association football (soccer) and rugby union are both more popular in Newfoundland and Labrador than the rest of Canada in general. Soccer is hosted at King George V Park, a 10,000-seat stadium built as Newfoundland's national stadium during the time as an independent dominion. Swilers Rugby Park hosts the Swilers RFC in rugby union. Other sports facilities in Newfoundland and Labrador include Pepsi Centre, an indoor arena in Corner Brook; Shamrock Field, Canada's national Gaelic Games venue in St. John's; and St. Patrick's Park, a baseball park in St. John's.
Within the province, the Newfoundland and Labrador Department of Transportation and Works operates or sponsors 15 automobile, passenger, and freight ferry routes which connect various communities along the province's significant coastline.
The St. John's International Airport YYT and the Gander International Airport YQX are the only airports in the province that are part of the National Airports System. The St. John's International Airport handles nearly 1,200,000 passengers a year making it the busiest airport in the province and the eleventh busiest airport in Canada. The airport is currently undergoing a major expansion of the terminal building which is scheduled to be complete in 2021.
Although the term "Newfie" is sometimes used in casual speech, some Newfoundlanders consider it a pejorative.
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Grant C. Head, Eighteenth Century Newfoundland: A Geographer’s Perspective (1976)
See Allan M. Fraser, "Calvert, Sir George" Dictionary of Canadian Biography online
John S. Moir, "Kirke, Sir David," Dictionary of Canadian Biography online
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^ "Newfoundland & Labrador and Canadian Federalism – History of Newfoundland & Labrador". Mapleleafweb. Retrieved February 5, 2011.
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Cadigan, Sean Thomas (2009). Newfoundland and Labrador: a history. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0-8020-4465-5.
^ "Collapse of Responsible Government, 1929–1934". Heritage Newfoundland and Labrador. Retrieved February 5, 2011.
Malone, Greg (2012). Don't Tell the Newfoundlanders: The True Story of Newfoundland's Confederation with Canada. Toronto: Alfred A Knopf Canada. pp. 8–10. ISBN 978-0-307-40133-5.
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Gene Long, Suspended State: Newfoundland Before Canada (1999)
^ "The Newfoundland National Convention". Heritage.nf.ca. Retrieved December 3, 2010.
Joseph Roberts Smallwood, I chose Canada: The Memoirs of the Honourable Joseph R. "Joey" Smallwood (1973) p. 256
Richard Gwyn, Smallwood: The Unlikely Revolutionary (1972)
Malone, Greg (2012). Don't Tell the Newfoundlanders: The True Story of Newfoundland's Confederation with Canada. Toronto: Alfred A Knopf Canada. p. 145. ISBN 978-0-307-40133-5.
"The 1948 Referendums", Library and Archives Canada
^ "Newfoundland Joins Canada) and Newfoundland and Confederation (1949)". .marianopolis.edu. Retrieved December 3, 2010.
Malone, Greg (2012). Don't Tell the Newfoundlanders: The True Story of Newfoundland's Confederation with Canada. Toronto: Alfred A Knopf Canada. pp. 68–75. ISBN 978-0-307-40133-5.
Malone, Greg (2012). Don't tell the Newfoundlanders: the true story of Newfoundland's confederation with Canada. Toronto: Alfred A Knopf Canada. pp. 225–26. ISBN 978-0-307-40133-5.
Malone (2012). Don't Tell the Newfoundlanders. pp. 224–25.
"The Newfoundland Flag". Retrieved June 25, 2010.
^ The Monitor, July 1976, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Newfoundland
^ "Statistics Canada: Population by religion, by province and territory (2001 Census)". Retrieved June 22, 2010.
"2006 Statistics Canada National Census: Newfoundland and Labrador". Statistics Canada. July 28, 2009.
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Carolyn Lambert, "Emblem of our Country", Newfoundland and Labrador Studies, Volume 23, Number 1, 2008.
Mark Quinn, "Push for old Newfoundland flag fails to cause ripple, poll finds", Globe and Mail, October 29, 2005, A16
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"Have-not is no more: N.L. off equalization". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. November 3, 2008. Retrieved February 5, 2011.
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Bell, Trevor; Liverman, David. "Mineral Resources". Memorial University of Newfoundland. Retrieved June 17, 2008.Cite uses deprecated parameters (help)
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Cadigan, Sean Thomas (2009). Newfoundland and Labrador: a history. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0-8020-4465-5.
Hiller, James; Neary, Peter (1994). Twentieth-century Newfoundland: explorations. Breakwater,. ISBN 1-55081-072-3.
Clarke, Sandra (2010). Newfoundland English. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 978-0-7486-2616-8.
Wilson, Donald; Ryan, Stanley (1990). Legends of Newfoundland & Labrador. Jesperson. ISBN 0-921692-40-4.
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Bavington, Dean L.Y. Managed Annihilation: An Unnatural History of the Newfoundland Cod Collapse (University of British Columbia Press; 2010) 224 pages. Links the collapse of Newfoundland and Labrador cod fishing to state management of the resource.
Cadigan, Sean T. Newfoundland and Labrador: A History U. of Toronto Press, 2009. Standard scholarly history
Casey, G.J. Casey and Elizabeth Miller, eds., Tempered Days: A Century of Newfoundland Fiction St. John's: Killick Press, 1996.
Earle, Karl Mcneil. "Cousins of a Kind: The Newfoundland and Labrador Relationship with the United States" American Review of Canadian Studies Vol: 28. Issue: 4. 1998. pp: 387–411.
Fay, C. R. Life and Labour in Newfoundland University of Toronto Press, 1956
Department of Finance, Economic Research and Analysis. "The Economic Review 2010" Dec. 2010