Inhabited by indigenous peoples of the Americas for many centuries before European exploration, New Mexico was subsequently part of the Imperial Spanishviceroyalty of New Spain, then part of Mexico, and a U.S. territory before attaining statehood. Among U.S. states, New Mexico has the highest percentage of Hispanics, including descendants of Spanish colonists and recent immigrants from Latin America. It also has the second-highest percentage of Native Americans after Alaska, and the fourth-highest total number of Native Americans after California, Oklahoma, and Arizona. The tribes in the state consist of mostly Navajo and Pueblo and the Apache peoples. As a result, the demographics and culture of the state are unique for their strong Hispanic and Native-American influences, both of which are reflected in the state flag. The red and gold colors of the New Mexico flag are taken from the flag of Spain, along with the ancient sun symbol of the Zia, a Pueblo-related tribe.
New Mexico, or Nuevo México in Spanish, is often incorrectly believed to have taken its name from the nation of Mexico. However, New Mexico was given its name in 1563, and again in 1581, by Spanish explorers who believed the area contained wealthy Indian cultures similar to those of the Mexica (Aztec) Empire. Mexico, formerly known as New Spain, adopted its name centuries later in 1821, after winning independence from Spanish rule. The two developed as neighboring Spanish speaking communities, with relatively independent histories.
The state's total area is 121,412 square miles (314,460 km2). The eastern border of New Mexico lies along 103° W longitude with the state of Oklahoma, and three miles (5 km) west of 103° W longitude with Texas.[not in citation given] On the southern border, Texas makes up the eastern two-thirds, while the Mexican states of Chihuahua and Sonora make up the western third, with Chihuahua making up about 90% of that. The western border with Arizona runs along the 109° 03' W longitude. The southwestern corner of the state is known as the Bootheel. The 37° Nlatitude parallel forms the northern boundary with Colorado. The states New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah come together at the Four Corners in the northwestern corner of New Mexico. New Mexico, although a large state, has little water. Its surface water area is about 250 square miles (650 km2).
The New Mexican landscape ranges from wide, rose-colored deserts to broken mesas to high, snow-capped peaks. Despite New Mexico's arid image, heavily forested mountain wildernesses cover a significant portion of the state, especially towards the north. The Sangre de Cristo Mountains, the southernmost part of the Rocky Mountains, run roughly north-south along the east side of the Rio Grande in the rugged, pastoral north. The most important of New Mexico's rivers are the Rio Grande, Pecos, Canadian, San Juan, and Gila. The Rio Grande is tied for the fourth longest river in the U.S.
The U.S. government protects millions of acres of New Mexico as national forests including:
The climate of New Mexico is generally semi-arid to arid, though there are areas of continental and alpine climates, and its territory is mostly covered by mountains, high plains, and desert. The Great Plains (High Plains) are located in the eastern portion of the state, similar to the Colorado high plains in eastern Colorado. The two states share similar terrain, with both having plains, mountains, basins, mesas, and desert lands. New Mexico's average precipitation rate is 13.9 inches (350 mm) a year. The average annual temperatures can range from 64 °F (18 °C) in the southeast to below 40 °F (4 °C) in the northern mountains. During the summer months, daytime temperatures can often exceed 100 °F (38 °C) at elevations below 5,000 feet (1,500 m), the average high temperature in July ranges from 97 °F (36 °C) at the lower elevations to the upper 70s (°F, up to 26 °C) at the higher elevations. Many cities in New Mexico can have temperature lows in the teens. The highest temperature recorded in New Mexico was 122 °F (50 °C) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Loving on June 27, 1994 and the lowest recorded temperature is −50 °F (−46 °C) at Gavilan on February 1, 1951.
Province of New Mexico when it belonged to Mexico in 1824
As a part of New Spain, the claims for the province of New Mexico passed to independent Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence.:109 The Republic of Texas claimed the portion east of the Rio Grande when it seceded from Mexico in 1836, when it incorrectly assumed the older Hispanic settlements of the upper Rio Grande were the same as the newly established Mexican settlements of Texas. Texas' only attempt to establish a presence or control in the claimed territory was the failed Texas Santa Fe Expedition, when their entire army was captured and jailed by Hispanic New Mexico militia.
The extreme northeastern part of New Mexico was owned by France, and sold to the United States as part of the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. By 1800 the Spanish population had reached 25,000, but Apache and Comanche raids on Hispanic settlers were common until well into the period of U.S. occupation.
The compromise of 1850 created the current boundary between New Mexico and Texas. It is also considered during this time a surveyor's error awarded the Permian Basin to the State of Texas, which included the city of El Paso. Claims to the Permian were initially dropped by New Mexico in a bid to gain statehood in 1911.
New Mexico played a role in the Trans-Mississippi Theater of the American Civil War. Both Confederate and Union governments claimed ownership and territorial rights over New Mexico Territory. In 1861 the Confederacy claimed the southern tract as its own Arizona Territory and waged the ambitious New Mexico Campaign in an attempt to control the American Southwest and open up access to Union California. Confederate power in the New Mexico Territory was effectively broken after the Battle of Glorieta Pass in 1862. However, the Confederate territorial government continued to operate out of Texas, and Confederate troops marched under the Arizona flag until the end of the war. Additionally, over 8,000 troops from New Mexico Territory served the Union.
Congress admitted New Mexico as the 47th state in the Union on January 6, 1912.:166
Of the people residing in New Mexico, 51.4% were born in New Mexico, 37.9% were born in a different US state, 1.1% were born in Puerto Rico, U.S. Island areas, or born abroad to American parent(s), and 9.7% were foreign born.
7.5% of New Mexico's population was reported as under 5 years of age, 25% under 18, and 13% were 65 or older. Women make up approximately 51% of the population.
As of 2000, 8% of the residents of the state were foreign-born.
Among U.S. states, New Mexico has the highest percentage of Hispanics, at 47 percent (as of July 1, 2012), including descendants of Spanish colonists and recent immigrants from Latin America.
According to the United States Census Bureau, 1.5% of the population is Multiracial/Mixed-Race, a population larger than both the Asian and NHPI population groups. In 2008 New Mexico had the highest percentage (47%) of Hispanics (of any race) of any state, with 83% of these native-born and 17% foreign-born. The majority of Hispanics in New Mexico claim a Spanish ancestry, especially in the northern part of the state. These people are the descendants of Spanish colonists who arrived during the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries. See Nuevomexicanos. The state also has a large Native American population, second in percentage behind that of Alaska.
According to estimates from the United States Census Bureau's 2006–2008 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimate, New Mexico's population was 1,962,226. The number of New Mexicans of different single races were: White, 1,375,334 (70.1%); Black, 43,931 (2.2%); American Indian or Alaskan Native, 182,136 (9.3%); Asian, 26,767 (1.4%), Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, 854 (0.1%), and 273,778 (14.0%) of some other race. There were 59,415 (3.0%) of two or more races. There were 873,171 (44.5%) Hispanics or Latino (of any race).
According the 2000 U.S. Census, 28.76% of the population aged 5 and older speak Spanish at home, while 4.07% speak Navajo. Speakers of New Mexican Spanish dialect are mainly descendants of Spanish colonists who arrived in New Mexico in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries. New Mexican Spanish is an archaic form of 17th century Castilian Spanish.
The original state constitution of 1912 provided for a bilingual government with laws being published in both English and Spanish; this requirement was renewed twice, in 1931 and 1943. Nonetheless, the constitution does not declare any language as "official." While Spanish was permitted in the legislature until 1935, all state officials are required to have a good knowledge of English. Cobarrubias and Fishman therefore argue that New Mexico cannot be considered a bilingual state as not all laws are published in both languages. Others, such as Juan Perea, claim that the state was officially bilingual until 1953. In either case, Hawaii is the only state that remains officially bilingual in the 21st century.
With regards to the judiciary, witnesses have the right to testify in either of the two languages, and monolingual speakers of Spanish have the same right to be considered for jury-duty as do speakers of English. In public education, the state has the constitutional obligation to provide for bilingual education and Spanish-speaking instructors in school districts where the majority of students are hispanophone.
In 1995, the state adopted a State Bilingual Song, New Mexico – Mi Lindo Nuevo México.:75,81 In 1989, New Mexico became the first state to officially adopt the English Plus resolution, and in 2008, the first to officially adopt a Navajo textbook for use in public schools.
San Miguel Chapel in Santa Fe. Oldest church structure in the U.S., built in 1610.
Oil and gas production, tourism, and federal government spending are important drivers of the state economy. State government has an elaborate system of tax credits and technical assistance to promote job growth and business investment, especially in new technologies.
In 2010 New Mexico's Gross Domestic Product was $80 billion. In 2007 the per capita personal income was $31,474 (rank 43rd in the nation). In 2005 the percentage of persons below the poverty level was 18.4%. The New Mexico Tourism Department estimates that in Fiscal Year 2006 the travel industry in New Mexico generated expenditures of $6.5 billion. As of April 2012[update], the state's unemployment rate was 7.2%. During the Late 2000s Recession New Mexico's unemployment rate peaked at 8.0% for the period June–October 2010.As of March 2012[update], the state's unemployment rate was 7.2%.
Oil and gas production
New Mexico is the third leading crude oil and natural gas producer in the United States. The Permian Basin (part of the Mid-Continent Oil Field) and San Juan Basin lie partly in New Mexico. In 2006 New Mexico accounted for 3.4% of the crude oil, 8.5% of the dry natural gas, and 10.2% of the natural gas liquids produced in the United States. In 2000 the value of oil and gas produced was $8.2 billion.
Federal government spending is a major driver of the New Mexico economy. In 2005 the federal government spent $2.03 on New Mexico for every dollar of tax revenue collected from the state. This rate of return is higher than any other state in the Union.
Albuquerque Studios, built in 2007 for rising demand of film production in the state.
New Mexico provides a number of economic incentives to businesses operating in the state, including various types of tax credits and tax exemptions. Most of the incentives are based on job creation.
New Mexico law allows governments to provide land, buildings, and infrastructure to businesses to promote job creation. Several municipalities have imposed an Economic Development Gross Receipts Tax (a form of Municipal Infrastructure GRT) that is used to pay for these infrastructure improvements and for marketing their areas.
The state provides financial incentives for film production. The New Mexico Film Office estimated at the end of 2007 that the incentive program had brought more than 85 film projects to the state since 2003 and had added $1.2 billion to the economy.
Since 2008, personal income tax rates for New Mexico have ranged from 1.7% to 4.9%, within four income brackets. As of 2007, active-duty military salaries are exempt from state income tax.
New Mexico imposes a Gross Receipts Tax (GRT) on many transactions, which may even include some governmental receipts. This resembles a sales tax but, unlike the sales taxes in many states, it applies to services as well as tangible goods. Normally, the provider or seller passes the tax on to the purchaser, however legal incidence and burden apply to the business, as an excise tax. GRT is imposed by the state and there may an additional locality component to produce a total tax rate. As of July 1, 2013 the combined tax rate ranged from 5.125% to 8.6875%.
Property tax is imposed on real property by the state, by counties, and by school districts. In general, personal-use personal property is not subject to property taxation. On the other hand, property tax is levied on most business-use personal property. The taxable value of property is 1/3 of the assessed value. A tax rate of about 30 mills is applied to the taxable value, resulting in an effective tax rate of about 1%. In the 2005 tax year the average millage was about 26.47 for residential property and 29.80 for non-residential property. Assessed values of residences cannot be increased by more than 3% per year unless the residence is remodeled or sold. Property tax deductions are available for military veterans and heads of household.
New Mexico has long been an important corridor for trade and migration. The builders of the ruins at Chaco Canyon also created a radiating network of roads from the mysterious settlement. Chaco Canyon's trade function shifted to Casas Grandes in the present-day Mexican state of Chihuahua, however, north-south trade continued. The pre-Columbian trade with Mesoamerican cultures included northbound exotic birds, seashells and copper. Turquoise, pottery, and salt were some of the goods transported south along the Rio Grande. Present-day New Mexico's pre-Columbian trade is especially remarkable for being undertaken on foot. The north-south trade route later became a path for colonists with horses arriving from New Spain as well as trade and communication. The route was called El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro.
The Santa Fe Trail was the 19th century US territory's vital commercial and military highway link to the Eastern United States. All with termini in Northern New Mexico, the Camino Real, the Santa Fe Trail and the Old Spanish Trail are all recognized as National Historic Trails. New Mexico's latitude and low passes made it an attractive east-west transportation corridor. As a territory, the Gadsden Purchase increased New Mexico's land area for the purpose of the construction of a southern transcontinental railroad, that of the Southern Pacific Railroad. Another transcontinental railroad was completed by the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway. The railroads essentially replaced the earlier trails but brought on a population boom. Early transcontinental auto trails later crossed the state bringing more migrants. Railroads were later supplemented or replaced by a system of highways and airports. Today, New Mexico's Interstate Highways approximate the earlier land routes of the Camino Real, the Santa Fe Trail and the transcontinental railroads.
New Mexico has had a problem with drunk driving, but that has lessened. According to the Los Angeles Times, for years the state had the highest alcohol-related crash rates in the U.S., but ranked 25th in alcohol-related fatal crash rates, as of July 2009[update].
The automobile changed the character of New Mexico, marking the start of large scale immigration to the state from elsewhere in the United States. Settlers moving West during the Great Depression and post-World War II American culture immortalized the National Old Trails Highway, later U.S. Route 66. Today, the automobile is heavily relied upon in New Mexico for transportation.
New Mexico had 59,927 route miles of highway as of 2000[update], of which 7,037 receive federal-aid. In that same year there were 1,003 miles (1,614 km) of freeways, of which 1000 were the route miles of Interstate Highways 10, 25 and 40. The former number has increased with the upgrading of roads near Pojoaque, Santa Fe and Las Cruces to freeways. The highway traffic fatality rate was 1.9 fatalities per million miles traveled in 2000, the 13th highest rate among U.S. states. Notable bridges include the Rio Grande Gorge Bridge near Taos. As of 2001[update], 703 highway bridges, or one percent, were declared "structurally deficient" or "structurally obsolete".
There were 2,354 route miles of railroads in the year 2000, this number increased with the opening of the Rail Runner's extension to Santa Fe. In addition to local railroads and other tourist lines, the state jointly owns and operates a heritage narrow-gauge steam railroad, the Cumbres and Toltec Scenic Railway, with the state of Colorado. Narrow gauge railroads once connected many communities in the northern part of the state, from Farmington to Santa Fe.:110 No fewer than 100 railroads of various names and lineage have operated in the jurisdiction at some point.:8 New Mexico's rail transportation system reached its height in terms of length following admission as a state; in 1914 eleven railroads operated 3124 route miles.:10
A commuter rail operation, the New Mexico Rail Runner Express, connects the state's capital, its largest city and other communities. The privately operated state owned railroad began operations in July 2006. The BNSF Railway's entire line from Belen to Raton, New Mexico was sold to the state, partially for the construction of phase II of this operation, which opened in December 2008. Phase II of Rail Runner extended the line northward to Santa Fe from the Sandoval County station, the northernmost station under Phase I service. The service now connects Santa Fe, Sandoval, Bernalillo, and Valencia Counties. The trains connect Albuquerque's population base and central business district to downtown Santa Fe with up to eight roundtrips in a day. The section of the line running south to Belen is served less frequently. Rail Runner operates scheduled service seven days per week.
Passenger train service once connected nine of New Mexico's present ten most populous cities (the exception is Rio Rancho), while today passenger train service connects two: Albuquerque and Santa Fe. With the decline of most intercity rail service in the United States in the late 1960s, New Mexico was left with minimal services. No less than six daily long-distance roundtrip trains supplemented by many branch line and local trains served New Mexico in the early 1960s. Declines in passenger revenue, but not necessarily ridership, prompted many railroads to turn over their passenger services in truncated form to Amtrak, a state owned enterprise. Amtrak, also known as the National Passenger Railroad Corporation, began operating the two extant long-distance routes in May 1971. Resurrection of passenger rail service from Denver to El Paso, a route once plied in part by the ATSF's El Pasoan:37, has been proposed over the years. As early as the 1980s former Governor Toney Anaya proposed building a high-speed rail line connecting the two cities with New Mexico's major cities.Front Range Commuter Rail is a project to connect Wyoming and New Mexico with high-speed rail.
Amtrak's Southwest Chief passes through daily at stations in Gallup, Albuquerque, Lamy, Las Vegas, and Raton, offering connections to Los Angeles, Chicago and intermediate points. The Southwest Chief is a fast Amtrak long distance train, being permitted a maximum speed of 90 mph (140 km/h) in various places on the tracks of the BNSF Railway. It also operates on New Mexico Rail Runner Express trackage. The Southwest Chief is the successor to the Super Chief and El Capitan.:115 The streamlinerSuper Chief, a favorite of early Hollywood stars, was one of the most famous named trains in the United States and one of the most esteemed for its luxury and exoticness—train cars were named for regional Native American tribes and outfitted with the artwork of many local artists—but also for its speed: as few as 39 hours 45 minutes westbound.
A sign in Southern New Mexico indicating "The Future site of the New Mexico Spaceport".
Current Governor Susana Martinez and Lieutenant Governor John Sanchez, both Republicans, were elected in 2010. Their terms expire in January 2015. Governors serve a term of four years and may seek re-election for one additional term (limit of two terms). Other constitutional officers, all of whose terms also expire in January 2015, include Secretary of State Dianna Duran, Attorney General Gary King, State Auditor Hector Balderas, State Land Commissioner Ray Powell, and State Treasurer James B. Lewis. King, Balderas, Lewis, and Powell are Democrats. Duran is a Republican.
Voter Registration and Party Enrollment as of February 28, 2014[update]
Currently, both houses of the New Mexico State Legislature have Democratic majorities (27 Democrats and 15 Republicans in the Senate. 36 Democrats, 33 Republicans, and 1 independent caucusing with Democrats in the House of Representatives).
New Mexico is considered a swing state, whose population has favored both Democratic and Republican presidential candidates in the past. The current governor is Susana Martinez (R), who succeeded Bill Richardson (D) on January 1, 2011 after he served two terms as governor from 2003 to 2011. Prior to Richardson, Gary Johnson served as governor from 1995 to 2003. Johnson served as a Republican, but in 2012 he ran for President from the Libertarian Party. Governors in New Mexico are limited to two terms. In previous presidential elections, Al Gore carried the state (by 366 votes) in 2000; George W. Bush won New Mexico's five electoral votes in 2004, and the state's electoral votes were won by Barack Obama in 2008 and 2012. Since achieving statehood in 1912, New Mexico has been carried by the victor in every presidential election except 1976 and 2000.
Democratic strongholds in the state include the Santa Fe Area, various areas of the Albuquerque Metro Area (such as the southeast and central areas, including the affluent Nob Hill neighborhood and the vicinity of the University of New Mexico), Northern and West Central New Mexico, and most of the Native American reservations, particularly the Navajo Nation. Republicans have traditionally had their strongholds in the eastern and southern parts of the state, the Farmington area, Rio Rancho, and Albuquerque's Northeast Heights and the newly developed areas in the Northwest mesa. While registered Democrats outnumber registered Republicans by nearly 200,000, New Mexico voters have historically favored moderate to conservative candidates of both parties at the state and federal levels.
On major political issues, New Mexico abolished its death penalty statute, though not retroactively, effective July 1, 2009. This means individuals currently on New Mexico's Death Row can still be executed, and those convicted of capital crimes prior to July 1, 2009 may still be sentenced to capital punishment under the pre-existing death penalty statute. On March 18, 2009, then Governor Bill Richardson signed the law abolishing the death penalty (although the repeal is not retroactive to capital crimes committed before it took effect) in New Mexico following the assembly and senate vote the week before, thus becoming the 15th U.S. state to abolish the penalty.
On gun control, New Mexico arguably has some of the least restrictive firearms laws in the country. State law pre-empts all local gun control ordinances. Unlike states with strong gun control laws, a New Mexico resident may purchase any firearm deemed legal under federal law. There are no waiting periods under state law for picking up a firearm after it has been purchased, and there are no restrictions on magazine capacity. Additionally, New Mexico allows open carry of a loaded firearm without a permit, and is "shall-issue" for concealed carry permits.
Prior to December 2013, New Mexico law did not explicitly allow nor prohibit same-sex marriage. Policy concerning the issuance of marriage licenses to same-sex couples was determined at the county level; that is, some county clerks issued marriage licenses to same-sex couples, while others did not. In December 2013, the New Mexico Supreme Court issued a unanimous ruling directing all county clerks to issue marriage licenses to same-sex couples, thereby making New Mexico the 17th state to recognize same-sex marriage at the statewide level.
The New Mexico Public Education department is situated in Santa Fe.
Due to the state's various research facilities, such as Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico had the highest concentration of PhD holders of any state in 2000.
With a Native American population of 134,000 in 1990, New Mexico still ranks as an important center of Native American culture. Both the Navajo and Apache share Athabaskan origin. The Apache and some Ute live on federal reservations within the state. With 16 million acres (6,500,000 ha), mostly in neighboring Arizona, the reservation of the Navajo Nation ranks as the largest in the United States. The prehistorically agricultural Pueblo Indians live in pueblos scattered throughout the state.
Almost half of New Mexicans claim Hispanic origin; many are descendants of colonial settlers. They settled in the northern portion of the state. Most of the Mexican immigrants reside in the southern part of the state. Also 10-15% of the population, mainly in the north, may contain Hispanic Jewish ancestry.
There are many New Mexicans who also speak a unique dialect of Spanish. New Mexican Spanish has vocabulary often unknown to other Spanish speakers. Because of the historical isolation of New Mexico from other speakers of the Spanish language, the local dialect preserves some late medieval Castilian vocabulary considered archaic elsewhere, adopts numerous Native American words for local features, and contains much Anglicized vocabulary for American concepts and modern inventions.
The earliest New Mexico artists whose work survives today are the Mimbres Indians, whose stunning black and white pottery could be mistaken for modern art, except for the fact that it was produced prior to the year 1130. See Mimbres culture. Many examples of this work can be seen at the Deming Luna Mimbres Museum and at the Western New Mexico University Museum.
The interior of the Crosby Theater at the Santa Fe Opera; viewed from the mezzanine.
Art is also a frequent theme in Albuquerque, New Mexico's largest city. The National Hispanic Cultural Center has held hundreds of performing arts events, art showcases, and other events related to Spanish culture in New Mexico and worldwide in the centerpiece Roy E Disney Center for the Performing Arts or in other venues at the 53 acre facility. New Mexico residents and visitors alike can enjoy performing art from around the world at Popejoy Hall on the campus of the University of New Mexico. Popejoy Hall hosts singers, dancers, Broadway shows, other types of acts, and Shakespeare. Albuquerque also has the unique and memorable KiMo Theater built in 1927 in the Pueblo Revival Style architecture. The KiMo presents live theater and concerts as well as movies and simulcast operas. In addition to other general interest theaters, Albuquerque also has the African American Performing Arts Center and Exhibit Hall which showcases achievements by people of African descent and the Indian Pueblo Cultural Center which highlights the cultural heritage of the First Nations people of New Mexico.
New Mexico still holds strong to its Spanish heritage. Old Spanish traditions such zarzuelas and flamenco are very popular in New Mexico. World renowned flamenco dancer and native New Mexican María Benítez founded the Maria Benítez Institute for Spanish Arts "to present programs of the highest quality of the rich artistic heritage of Spain as expressed through music, dance, visual arts and other art forms." There is also the Festival Flamenco Internacional de Alburquerque[dead link] held each year in which both native Spanish and New Mexican flamenco dancers perform at the University of New Mexico.
New Mexico's strong Spanish, Native American, and Wild West frontier motifs have provided material for many authors in the state including internationally recognized Rudolfo Anaya and Tony Hillerman.
Silver City, in the southwestern mountains of the state, was originally a mining town, and at least one nearby mine still operates. It is perhaps better known now as the home of and/or exhibition center for large numbers of artists, visual and otherwise. Another former mining town turned art haven is Madrid, New Mexico. It was brought to national fame as the filming location for the movie Wild Hogs in 2007. The City of Las Cruces, in southern New Mexico, has a museum system that is affiliated with the Smithsonian Institution Affiliations Program. Las Cruces also has a variety of cultural and artistic opportunities for residents and visitors alike.
Aside from the aforementioned Wild Hogs, other movies filmed in New Mexico include Sunshine Cleaning.
Olympic gold medalist Tom Jager, who is an advocate of controversial high-altitude training for swimming, has conducted training camps in Albuquerque (elevation 5,312 ft (1,619.1 m)) and Los Alamos (7,320 ft (2,231 m)).
"Most spoken languages in New Mexico in 2010". MLA Data Center. Retrieved November 4, 2012.
^ "Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2013" (CSV). 2013 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. December 30, 2013. Retrieved January 6, 2014.
Norris, Tina; Vines, Paula L.; Hoeffel, Elizabeth M. (February 2012). "The American Indian and Alaska Native Population: 2010". Census 2010 Brief. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 1, 2012.
"New Mexico State Flag – About the New Mexico Flag, its adoption and history from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved June 10, 2012.
Weber, David J. (1992). The Spanish Frontier in North America. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. p. 79.
Sanchez, Joseph P. (1987). The Rio Abajo Frontier, 1540–1692: A History of Early Colonial New Mexico. Albuquerque: Museum of Albuquerque History Monograph Series. p. 51.
Stewart, George (2008) . Names on the Land: A Historical Account of Place-Naming in the United States. New York: NYRB Classics. pp. 23–24. ISBN 978-1-59017-273-5. "There was Francisco de Ibarra, a great seeker after gold mines. In 1563 he went far to the north ... when he returned south, Ibarra boasted that he had discovered a New Mexico. Doubtless, like others, he stretched the tale, and certainly the land of which he told was well south of the one now so called. Yet men remembered the name Nuevo México, though not at first as that of the region which Coronado had once conquered."
^ "CLIMATE OF NEW MEXICO". New Mexico State University. Retrieved March 20, 2010.
"Rivers of the World". USGS. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
"Find a Forest by State". USDA Forest Service. Retrieved March 20, 2010.
"New Mexico". National Park Service. Retrieved July 17, 2008.[dead link]
"All-Time Climate Extremes for NM". National Climatic Data Center. Retrieved March 18, 2011.[dead link]
Merriam Bailey, Florence (1928). Birds of New Mexico. The University of Michigan.
Hogan, C. Michael (2008). "Wild turkey: Meleagris gallopavo". GlobalTwitcher.com. Retrieved April 2, 2010.
New Mexico; New Mexico Compilation Commission (1966). New Mexico statutes, 1953, annotated2. Indianapolis: A. Smith Co. p. 68. OCLC 28494004. Retrieved July 31, 2011.
^ Murphy, Dan (2000). New Mexico, the distant land: an illustrated history. photo research by John O. Baxter (2000 ed.). Sun Valley, CA: American Historical Press. ISBN 978-1-892724-09-0.
^ Simmons, Marc (1988). New Mexico: An Interpretive History (New ed.). Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. ISBN 0-8263-1110-5.
Stewart, George (2008) . Names on the Land: A Historical Account of Place-Naming in the United States. New York: NYRB Classics. pp. 23–24. ISBN 978-1-59017-273-5. "There was Francisco de Ibarra, a great seeker after gold mines. In 1563 he went far to the north...when he returned south, Ibarra boasted that he had discovered a New Mexico. Doubtless, like others, he stretched the tale, and certainly the land of which he told was well south of the one now so called. Yet men remembered the name Nuevo México, though not at first as that of the region which Coronado had once conquered."
"Cuarto Centenario: 400 Years of New Mexico Culture and History". New Mexico Department of Cultural Affairs. 1999. Retrieved October 12, 2008.[dead link]
^ Simmons, Mark (1991). The Last Conquistador: Juan De Oñate and the Settling of the Far Southwest. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-2368-0.
Resistance and Accommodation in New Mexico. Source: C. W. Hackett, ed., Historical Documents relating to New Mexico, Nueva Vizcaya, and Approaches Thereto, to 1773, vol. III [Washington: Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1937] pp. 327–35.
"The Founding of Albuquerque – The Albuquerque Museum". City of Albuquerque. Retrieved October 12, 2008.
"Boundaries of the Louisiana Purchase as Recognized Today". Louisiana: European Explorations and the Louisiana Purchase. Library of Congress. December 2001. Retrieved December 6, 2008.
New Mexico (state). Britannica Online Encyclopedia.
"American Civil War Research Database statistics". Civilwardata.com. March 4, 2012. Retrieved June 10, 2012.
Resident Population Data. "Resident Population Data – 2010 Census". 2010.census.gov. Retrieved December 24, 2012.
"Table 16. Population: 1790 to 1990" (PDF). Population and Housing Unit Counts. 1990 Census of Population and Housing. CPH-2-1. U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. pp. 26–27. ISBN 99946-41-25-5. Retrieved July 3, 2008.
"Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2009". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved April 11, 2010.[dead link]
Reynis, Lee A.; Marshall J. Vest (2005). "The Southwest Heartland: The Good, the Bad & the Ugly" (PDF). University of New Mexico, Bureau of Business and Economic Research. p. 12. Retrieved October 12, 2008.
^ "New Mexico QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved March 28, 2010.
Brinkhoff, Thomas (July 1, 2013). "New Mexico (USA): State, Major Cities, Towns & Places". City Population. Retrieved July 1, 2013.
"Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States". Census.gov. Retrieved 2014-04-21.
Population of New Mexico: Census 2010 and 2000 Interactive Map, Demographics, Statistics, Quick Facts[dead link]
2010 Census Data. "2010 Census Data". Census.gov. Retrieved 2014-04-21.
"2010 Census Data". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 29, 2011.
Demographic Profile of Hispanics in New Mexico, 2007. Pew Hispanic Center.
"Alaska QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau". US Census Bureau. Retrieved April 10, 2010.
"US Census 2006–2008 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates". Factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved June 10, 2012.[dead link]
Brittingham, Angela; G. Patricia de la Cruz (June 2004). "Table 3. Largest Ancestries for the United States, Regions, States, and for Puerto Rico: 2000" (PDF). Ancestry: 2000; Census 2000 Brief. US Census Bureau. Retrieved November 8, 2008.Cite uses deprecated parameters (help)
"MLA Language Map Data Center: Most spoken languages in New Mexico". Mla.org. July 17, 2007. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
"The Spanish language in New Mexico and southern Colorado". Archive.org. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
Rubén Cobos. A Dictionary of New Mexico & Southern Colorado Spanish. Santa Fe: Museum of New Mexico Press, 2003
Crawford, John (1992). Language loyalties: a source book on the official English controversy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 62.
^ Cobarrubias, Juan; Fishman, Joshua A (1983). Progress in Language Planning: International Perspectives. Walter de Gruyter. p. 195.
^ Constitution of the State of New Mexico. Adopted January 21, 1911.
Perea, Juan F. Los Olvidados: On the Making of Invisible People. New York University Law Review, 70(4), 965-990.
^ Joseph, John Earl (2006). Language and Politics. Edinburgh University Press. p. 63.
Roberts, Calvin A. (2006). Our New Mexico: A Twentieth Century History. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. p. 23.
"State Symbols". New Mexico Blue Book 2007–2008. New Mexico Secretary of State. Retrieved January 3, 2009.[dead link]
Felicia Fonseca (July 31, 2008). "New Mexico first state to adopt Navajo textbook". Seattle Times. Retrieved October 29, 2011.
"The Association of Religion Data Archives | State Membership Report". www.thearda.com. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. (February 2008). U.S. Religious Landscape Survey: Religious Affiliation: Diverse and Dynamic (PDF). Pew Research Center. Retrieved June 25, 2008.
"GDP by State". Greyhill Advisors. Retrieved September 9, 2011.
"Per Capita Personal Income by State". University of New Mexico, Bureau of Business and Economic Research. April 4, 2008. Retrieved October 13, 2008.
"Persons Below Poverty by New Mexico County". University of New Mexico, Bureau of Business and Economic Research. January 18, 2008. Retrieved October 13, 2008.
"Travel Economic Impact Model" (PDF). New Mexico Tourism Department. Retrieved October 2, 2008.[dead link]
"Local Area Unemployment Statistics".
"Local Area Unemployment Statistics". Retrieved May 11, 2012.
"EIA State Energy Profiles: New Mexico". US Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration. October 9, 2008. Retrieved October 9, 2008.
"Oil & Gas Program". New Mexico Institute of Technology, New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources. Retrieved October 9, 2008.
"Federal Spending Received Per Dollar of Taxes Paid by State, 2005". Tax Foundation. October 9, 2007. Retrieved September 21, 2008.
Dr. Chris Erickson; Erin Ward (May 2005). "Economic Impact of the Closure of Cannon Air Force Base". New Mexico Business Outlook. New Mexico State University. Archived from the original on September 2, 2006. Retrieved October 13, 2008.
"Business Assistance: Incentives". State of New Mexico Economic Development Department. Retrieved June 2, 2008.
Domrzalski, Dennis (September 19, 2003). "28 New Mexico towns tap into $45M in incentives". New Mexico Business Weekly. OCLC 30948175. Retrieved June 2, 2008.
"Governor Signs Film Production Tax Incentives". New Mexico Economic Development Department. March 4, 2002. Archived from the original on November 14, 2006. Retrieved September 12, 2007.
"New Mexico's Film Incentives". New Mexico Film Office. Retrieved June 2, 2008.[dead link]
Hay, Kiera (December 10, 2007). State's Incentives Keep Film Industry Growing. Albuquerque Journal. OCLC 9392114. Retrieved June 2, 2008.
"Personal Income Tax Rates" (PDF). State of New Mexico Taxation and Revenue Department. August 25, 2008. p. 3. Retrieved September 4, 2008.[dead link]
"Governor Richardson Announces New Laws to Take Effect; New State laws go into effect June 15, 2007" (PDF) (Press release). Office of the Governor, State of New Mexico. June 14, 2008. Retrieved September 5, 2008. "HB 436 Working Families Tax Credit...eliminates taxes on active duty military salaries."[dead link]
"Gross Receipts Taxes FAQ" (PDF). State of New Mexico, Taxation and Revenue Department. August 6, 2006. Retrieved October 9, 2008.[dead link]
"Santa Fe National Historic Trail (U.S. National Park Service)". Nps.gov. Retrieved June 10, 2012.
Los Angeles Times, New Mexico turns a corner on drunk driving, July 7, 2009, by Kate Linthicum, http://articles.latimes.com/2009/jul/07/nation/na-new-mexico-dwi7
U.S. Department of Transportation Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Table 1-2: New Mexico Public Road Length, Miles by Ownership 2000 
U.S. Department of Transportation Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Table 1-1: New Mexico Public Road Length, by Functional System 
"U.S. Department of Transportation Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Table 2-1: Highway Traffic Fatalities and Fatality Rates: 2000". Bts.gov. Retrieved June 10, 2012.
U.S. Department of Transportation Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Table 1-5: Highway Bridge Condition: 2001 
^ Holmes, Sue Major (January 14, 2009). "Mass. firm sues state over Railrunner name". Boston Globe. Retrieved February 2, 2009.[dead link]
"ABQ RIDE – City of Albuquerque". City of Albuquerque. Retrieved April 12, 2010.
^ U.S. Department of Transportation Bureau of Transportation Statistics,Table 1-9: Freight Railroads in New Mexico and the United States: 2000 
^ Myrick, David F. (1970). New Mexico's Railroads—An Historical Survey. Golden, Colorado: Colorado Railroad Museum. ISBN 0-8263-1185-7. Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 70-116915.
^ "New Mexico and its Railroads". La Crónica de Nuevo México/New Mexico Office of the State Historian: Digital History Project—The Book of Mapping. Historical Society of New Mexico. August 1984. Retrieved March 31, 2009.[dead link]
^ "Stations – New Mexico Rail Runner Express". Nmrailrunner.com. Retrieved June 10, 2012.
Grimm, Julie Ann (December 17, 2008). "Delays, struck cow mark Rail Runner's first day, but riders optimistic". The Santa Fe New Mexican. Retrieved February 2, 2009.[dead link]
"New Mexico Rail Runner Express weekday schedule" (PDF). Retrieved July 31, 2010.[dead link]
"Rail Runner schedule page". Nmrailrunner.com. April 12, 2010. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
^ Richards, C Fenton Jr (2001). Santa Fe – The Chief Way. Second Printing, 2005. Robert Strein & John Vaughn. New Mexico Magazine. ISBN 0-937206-71-7.
^ Dorin, Patrick C. (2004). Santa Fe Passenger Trains in the Streamlined Era. design and layout by Megan Johnson. USA: TLC Publishing, Inc. ISBN 1-883089-99-9.
Herron, Gary (December 22, 2008). "Media and politicians enjoy inaugural ride, public opening met with delays". The Observer (UK). Retrieved February 2, 2009.
Proctor, Cathy (May 15, 2005). "Idea floated for Front Range rail line".
"Southwest Chief passenger timetable". Amtrak. October 2008. Retrieved February 2, 2009.
Blaszak, Michael W. (2009). "Speed, Signals, and Safety". Fast Trains. Classic Trains Special Edition No. 7 (Waukesha, Wisconsin: Kalmbach Publishing Co.): 47. ISBN 978-0-89024-763-1.
"Sunset Limited passenger timetable". Amtrak. January 2009. Retrieved February 2, 2009.
Ohtake, Miyoko (August 25, 2007). "Virgin Galactic Preps for Liftoff at World's First Commercial Spaceport". Wired Magazine (15:10). Retrieved January 24, 2009.[dead link]
^ Robinson-Avila (December 31, 2008). "NM Spaceport, Virgin Galactic sign 20-year lease". New Mexico Business Weekly. Retrieved January 24, 2009.
^ AFP (December 19, 2008). "First Commercial Spaceport Gets Green Light". Discovery Channel. Retrieved January 24, 2009.
UP Aerospace does launches 'quickly and cheaply', DenverBiz Journal, October 2008 
"News Release 03.04.2008 / Spaceport Sweden and Virgin Galactic". Retrieved June 26, 2008.
"NM Secretary of State's Office official web site". Sos.state.nm.us. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
"NM Attorney General's Office official web site". Ago.state.nm.us. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
"NM State Auditor's Office official web site". Saonm.org. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
"NM State Lands official web site". Nmstatelands.org. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
"NM State Treasurer's Office official web site". Stonm.org. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
"Voter Registration Statistics" (PDF). New Mexico Secretary of State Elections Bureau. Retrieved Feb 28, 2014.
"New registration numbers" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-04-21.
"New Mexico Presidential Election Voting History". 270towin.com. Retrieved 2014-04-21.
Le Nouveau-Mexique abolit la peine de mort [archive] in Le Monde of March 19, 2009
"Venture Capitals". Wired. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
"Deming Luna County Museum". Lunacountyhistoricalsociety.com. Retrieved 2014-04-21.
"Western New Mexico University Museum". Wnmumuseum.org. Retrieved 2014-04-21.
"Popejoy Hall". Retrieved May 15, 2012.
"KiMo Theater". Retrieved May 15, 2012.
"African American Performing Arts Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico". Aapacnm.org. Retrieved June 10, 2012.[dead link]
"Indian Pueblo Cultural Center". Retrieved May 15, 2012.
"Zarzuela in New Mexico". Zarzuela.net. Retrieved June 10, 2012.
"New Mexico Authors Page". Retrieved May 15, 2012.
"Silver City Art". Retrieved May 15, 2012.
"Madrid Art". Retrieved May 15, 2012.
"City of Las Cruces". Retrieved May 15, 2012.
"Las Cruces Convention and Visitors Bureau". Retrieved May 15, 2012.
"High Hopes: Altitude Training for Swimmers", by Michael Scott, SwimmingWorldMagazine.com magazine archives  (10-15-08)
Beck, Warren. Historical Atlas of New Mexico 1969.
Chavez, Thomas E. An Illustrated History of New Mexico, 267 pages, University of New Mexico Press 2002, ISBN 0-8263-3051-7
Bullis, Don. New Mexico: A Biographical Dictionary, 1540–1980, 2 vol, (Los Ranchos de Albuquerque: Rio Grande, 2008) 393 pp. ISBN 978-1-890689-17-9
Gonzales-Berry, Erlinda, David R. Maciel, eds. The Contested Homeland: A Chicano History of New Mexico, University of New Mexico Press 2000, ISBN 0-8263-2199-2, 314 pp.
Gutiérrez, Ramón A. When Jesus Came, the Corn Mothers Went Away: Marriage, Sexuality, and Power in New Mexico, 1500–1846 (1991)
Hain, Paul L., F. Chris Garcia, Gilbert K. St. Clair; New Mexico Government 3rd ed. (1994)
Horgan, Paul, Great River, The Rio Grande in North American History, 1038 pages, Wesleyan University Press 1991, 4th Reprint, ISBN 0-585-38014-7, Pulitzer Prize 1955
Larson, Robert W. New Mexico's Quest for Statehood, 1846–1912 (1968)
Nieto-Phillips, John M. The Language of Blood: The Making of Spanish-American Identity in New Mexico, 1880s–1930s, University of New Mexico Press 2004, ISBN 0826324231
Simmons, Marc. New Mexico: An Interpretive History, University of New Mexico Press 1988, ISBN 0-8263-1110-5, 221 pp, good introduction
Szasz, Ferenc M., and Richard W. Etulain, eds. Religion in Modern New Mexico (1997)
Trujillo, Michael L. Land of Disenchantment: Latina/o Identities and Transformations in Northern New Mexico (2010) 265 pp; an experimental ethnography that contrasts life in the Espanola Valley with the state's commercial image as the "land of enchantment."
Weber; David J. Foreigners in Their Native Land: Historical Roots of the Mexican Americans (1973), primary sources to 1912
Ellis, Richard, ed. New Mexico Past and Present: A Historical Reader. 1971. primary sources
Tony Hillerman, The Great Taos Bank Robbery and other Indian Country Affairs, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, 1973, trade paperback, 147 pages, (ISBN 0-8263-0530-X), fiction