Melbourne (/ˈmɛlbərn/) is the capital and most populous city in the state of Victoria, and the second most populous city in Australia. The name "Melbourne" refers to an urban agglomeration area (and census statistical division) spanning 9,900 km2 (3,857.2 sq mi) that comprises the greater metropolis – as well as being a common name for its metropolitan hub, the Melbourne City Centre. It is a leading financial centre in Australia, as well as the Asia-Pacific region, and has been ranked the world's most livable city since 2011 (and among the top three since 2002), according the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU). In 2013 the EIU also ranked Melbourne the fourth most expensive city in the world, tying with Oslo, Norway. Melbourne is rated highly in the areas of education, entertainment, healthcare, research and development, tourism and sports.
The first European settlement in Victoria was established by Colonel David Collins in October 1803, at Sullivan Bay, near present-day Sorrento, but this settlement was relocated to what is now Hobart Tasmania in February 1804, due to a perceived lack of resources. It would be 30 years before another settlement was attempted.
In May and June 1835, the area which is now central and northern Melbourne was explored by John Batman, a leading member of the Port Phillip Association in Van Diemen's Land (now called Tasmania), who negotiated a purchase of 600,000 acres (2,400 km2) with eight Wurundjeri elders. Batman selected a site on the northern bank of the Yarra River, declaring that "this will be the place for a village". Batman then returned to Launceston in Tasmania. In early August 1835 a different group of settlers, including John Pascoe Fawkner, left Launceston on the ship Enterprize. John Pascoe Fawkner was forced to disembark at Georgetown, Tasmania because of outstanding debts. The remainder of the party continued and arrived at the mouth of the Yarra River on 15 August 1835. On 30 August 1835 the party disembarked and established a settlement at the site of the current Melbourne Immigration Museum. John Batman and his group arrived on 2 September 1835 and the two groups ultimately agreed to share the settlement.
Between 1836 and 1842, Victorian Aboriginal groups were largely dispossessed of territory bigger than England. By January 1844, there were said to be 675 Aborigines resident in squalid camps in Melbourne. Although the British Colonial Office appointed 5 "Aboriginal Protectors" for the entire Aboriginal population of Victoria, arriving in Melbourne in 1839, they worked ". . . within a land policy that nullified their work, and there was no political will to change this". "It was government policy to encourage squatters to take possession of whatever [Aboriginal] land they chose, ... that largely explains why almost all the original inhabitants of Port Phillip's vast grasslands were dead so soon after 1835". By 1845, fewer than 240 wealthy Europeans held all the pastoral licences then issued in Victoria and became the patriarchs " . . . that were to wield so much political and economic power in Victoria for generations to come".
Melbourne was declared a city by letters patent of Queen Victoria, issued on 25 June 1847. The Port Phillip District became the separate Colony of Victoria in 1851, with Melbourne as its capital. With the Aboriginal population dispossessed of their lands and their management of fire having been disrupted for almost 15 years, the Colony experienced for the first time its largest-ever bushfires, burning about 25% of the land area of Victoria on Black Thursday on 6 February 1851.
The discovery of gold in Victoria in 1851 led to the Victorian gold rush, and Melbourne, which served as the major port and provided most services for the region, experienced rapid growth. Within months, the city's population had increased by nearly three-quarters, from 25,000 to 40,000 inhabitants. Thereafter, growth was exponential and by 1865, Melbourne had overtaken Sydney as Australia's most populous city.
An influx of interstate and overseas migrants, particularly Irish, German and Chinese, saw the development of slums including a temporary "tent city" established on the southern banks of the Yarra. Chinese migrants founded a Chinatown in 1851, which remains the longest continuous Chinese settlement in the Western World. In the aftermath of the Eureka Rebellion, mass public support for the plight of the miners in Melbourne resulted in major political changes to the colony. The various nationalities involved in the Eureka Stockade revolt and Burke and Wills expedition give some indication of migration flows in the second half of the nineteenth century.
The Federal Coffee Palace; one of many temperance hotels erected in the late 19th century
The economic boom of the Victorian gold rush peaked during the 1880s, by which time Melbourne had become the richest city in the world, and the largest after London in the British Empire. Melbourne hosted two international exhibitions at the large purpose-built Exhibition Building between 1880 and 1890, spurring the construction of several prestigious hotels including the Menzies, Federal and the Grand (Windsor).
In 1855 the Melbourne Cricket Club secured possession of its now famous ground, the MCG. Members of the Melbourne Football Club codified Australian football in 1859, and Yarra rowing clubs and "regattas" became popular about the same time. In 1861 the Melbourne Cup was first run. In 1864 Melbourne acquired its first public monument—the Burke and Wills statue. In 1880 a telephone exchange was established and in the same year the foundations of St. Paul's Cathedral were laid; in 1881 electric light was installed in the Eastern Market building, and in the following year a generating station capable of supplying 2,000 incandescent lamps was in operation. In 1885 the first cable tram in Melbourne was built. Cable tramways were in general use until the 1920s, when they were superseded by electric motors. Electric trams were introduced into the suburbs in 1906.
During a visit in 1885 English journalist George Augustus Henry Sala coined the phrase "Marvellous Melbourne", which stuck long into the twentieth century and is still used today by Melburnians. Growing building activity culminated in a "land boom" which, in 1888, reached a peak of speculative development fuelled by consumer confidence and escalating land value. As a result of the boom, large commercial buildings, coffee palaces, terrace housing and palatial mansions proliferated in the city. The establishment of a hydraulic facility in 1887 allowed for the local manufacture of elevators, resulting in the first construction of high-rise buildings; most notably 1889's APA (The Australian) Building, the world's tallest office building upon completion and Melbourne's tallest for over half a century. This period also saw the expansion of a major radial rail-based transport network.
A brash boosterism that had typified Melbourne during this time ended in 1891 with a severe depression of the city's economy, sending the local finance and property industries into a period of chaos during which 16 small banks and building societies collapsed and 133 limited companies went into liquidation. The Melbourne financial crisis was a contributing factor in the Australian economic depression of the 1890s and the Australian banking crisis of 1893. The effects of the depression on the city were profound, although it recovered enough to grow slowly during the early twentieth century.
At the time of Australia's federation on 1 January 1901, Melbourne became the seat of government of the federation. The first federal parliament was convened on 9 May 1901 in the Royal Exhibition Building, subsequently moving to the Victorian Parliament House where it was located until 1927, when it was moved to Canberra. The Governor-General of Australia resided at Government House in Melbourne until 1930 and many major national institutions remained in Melbourne well into the twentieth century.
In the immediate years after World War II, Melbourne expanded rapidly, its growth boosted by Post war immigration to Australia, primarily from Southern Europe and the Mediterranean. While the "Paris End" of Collins Street began Melbourne's boutique shopping and open air cafe cultures, the city centre was seen by many as stale, the dreary domain of office workers, something expressed by John Brack in his famous painting Collins St., 5 pm (1955).
Height limits in the Melbourne CBD were lifted in 1958, after the construction of ICI House, transforming the city's skyline with the introduction of skyscrapers. Suburban expansion then intensified, serviced by new indoor malls beginning with Chadstone Shopping Centre. The post-war period also saw a major renewal of the CBD and St Kilda Road which significantly modernised the city. New fire regulations and redevelopment saw most of the taller pre-war CBD buildings either demolished or partially retained through a policy of facadism. Many of the larger suburban mansions from the boom era were also either demolished or subdivided.
Melbourne features an extensive juxtaposition of modern and Victorian era buildings.
To counter the trend towards low-density suburban residential growth, the government began a series of controversial public housing projects in the inner city by the Housing Commission of Victoria, which resulted in demolition of many neighbourhoods and a proliferation of high-rise towers. In later years, with the rapid rise of motor vehicle ownership, the investment in freeway and highway developments greatly accelerated the outward suburban sprawl and declining inner city population. The Bolte government sought to rapidly accelerate the modernisation of Melbourne. Major road projects including the remodelling of St Kilda Junction, the widening of Hoddle Street and then the extensive 1969 Melbourne Transportation Plan changed the face of the city into a car-dominated environment.
Australia's financial and mining booms between 1969 and 1970 resulted in establishment of the headquarters of many major companies (BHP Billiton and Rio Tinto, among others) in the city. Nauru's then booming economy resulted in several ambitious investments in Melbourne, such as Nauru House. Melbourne remained Australia's main business and financial centre until the late 1970s, when it began to lose this primacy to Sydney.
As the centre of Australia's "rust belt", Melbourne experienced an economic downturn between 1989 to 1992, following the collapse of several local financial institutions. In 1992 the newly elected Kennett government began a campaign to revive the economy with an aggressive development campaign of public works coupled with the promotion of the city as a tourist destination with a focus on major events and sports tourism. During this period the Australian Grand Prix moved to Melbourne from Adelaide. Major projects included the construction of a new facility for the Melbourne Museum, Federation Square, the Melbourne Exhibition and Convention Centre, Crown Casino and the CityLinktollway. Other strategies included the privatisation of some of Melbourne's services, including power and public transport, and a reduction in funding to public services such as health, education and public transport infrastructure.
Since the mid-1990s, Melbourne has maintained significant population and employment growth. There has been substantial international investment in the city's industries and property market. Major inner-city urban renewal has occurred in areas such as Southbank, Port Melbourne, Melbourne Docklands and more recently, South Wharf. According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics, Melbourne sustained the highest population increase and economic growth rate of any Australian capital city in the three years ended June 2004. These factors have led to population growth and further suburban expansion through the 2000s.
A panoramic view of the Melbourne Docklands and the city skyline from Waterfront City looking across Victoria Harbour.
Melbourne skyline at night.
From 2006, the growth of the city extended into "green wedges" and beyond the city's urban growth boundary. Predictions of the city's population reaching 5 million people pushed the state government to review the growth boundary in 2008 as part of its Melbourne @ Five Million strategy. In 2009, Melbourne was less affected by the Late-2000s financial crisis in comparison to other Australian cities. At this time, more new jobs were created in Melbourne than any other Australian capital—almost as many as the next two fastest growing cities, Brisbane and Perth, combined, and Melbourne's property market remained strong, resulting in historically high property prices and widespread rent increases.
Melbourne has a moderate oceanic climate (Köppen climate classificationCfb) and is well known for its changeable weather conditions. This is mainly due to Melbourne's location situated on the boundary of the very hot inland areas and the cool southern ocean. This temperature differential is most pronounced in the spring and summer months and can cause very strong cold fronts to form. These cold fronts can be responsible for all sorts of severe weather from gales to severe thunderstorms and hail, large temperature drops, and heavy rain.
Port Phillip is often warmer than the surrounding oceans and/or the land mass, particularly in spring and autumn; this can set up a "bay effect" similar to the "lake effect" seen in colder climates where showers are intensified leeward of the bay. Relatively narrow streams of heavy showers can often affect the same places (usually the eastern suburbs) for an extended period of time, while the rest of Melbourne and surrounds stays dry. Overall, Melbourne is, owing to the rain shadow of the Otway Ranges, nonetheless drier than average for southern Victoria. Within the city and surrounds, however, rainfall varies widely, from around 425 millimetres (17 in) at Little River to 1,250 millimetres (49 in) on the eastern fringe at Gembrook.
Melbourne is also prone to isolated convective showers forming when a cold pool crosses the state, especially if there is considerable daytime heating. These showers are often heavy and can contain hail and squalls and significant drops in temperature, but they pass through very quickly at times with a rapid clearing trend to sunny and relatively calm weather and the temperature rising back to what it was before the shower. This occurs often in the space of minutes and can be repeated many times in a day, giving Melbourne a reputation for having "four seasons in one day", a phrase that is part of local popular culture and familiar to many visitors to the city.
Melbourne is somewhat colder than other mainland Australian state capital cities in the winter, but not enormously so, with only a small variation in winter temperatures. The lowest temperature on record is −2.8 °C (27.0 °F), on 4 July 1901. However, snowfalls are very rare: the most recent occurrence of sleet in the CBD was on 25 July 1986 and the most recent snowfalls in the outer eastern suburbs and Mount Dandenong were on 10 August 2005. More commonly, Melbourne experiences frosts and fog in winter.
Melbourne summers are notable for occasional days of extreme heat, which has increased in frequency over the past decade. This occurs when the synoptic pattern is conducive to the transportation of very hot air from central Australia over to the south east corner of the continent. The inland deserts of Australia are amongst the hottest areas on earth, particularly the inland parts of north-west Australia. Every summer, intense heat builds starting in the Pilbara district of Western Australia around October/November and spreading widely over the tropical and subtropical inland parts of the continent by January. In the summer months, the southern part of the continent straddles the westerly wind belt to the south and the subtropical high pressure ridge to the north. The intense heat buildup occurs where high pressure is highly dominant in the upper levels of the atmosphere over the tropics and subtropics of Australia in summer allowing for a huge area of stable atmospheric conditions to predominate. On occasion a strong cold front will develop in summer and bring the westerlies further north than their mean summer position. On these occasions, north-west winds will develop ahead of the cold front's passage and sometimes these can be very strong, even gale force. When this occurs the hot air from the inland is dragged right down over south east Australia, occasionally even as far as southern Tasmania. As this air mass is carried entirely over the continental land mass it remains unmodified, i.e. it does not pick up additional moisture from a body of water and retains most if not all of its heat. On these occasions, the normally temperate parts of southern Victoria, including Melbourne, can experience the full fury of the desert climate albeit only briefly as the cold front responsible usually passes through relatively quickly allowing cool southerly winds from the southern ocean to replace the hot desert air. The highest temperature recorded in Melbourne city was 46.4 °C (115.5 °F), on 7 February 2009.
The Hoddle Grid (dimensions of 1 by 0.5 miles (1.61 by 0.80 km)) forms the centre of Melbourne's central business district. The grid's southern edge fronts onto the Yarra River. Office, commercial and public developments in the adjoining districts of Southbank and Docklands have made these redeveloped areas into extensions of the CBD in all but name. The city centre has a reputation for its historic and prominent lanes and arcades (most notably Block Place and Royal Arcade) which contain a variety of shops and cafés and are a byproduct of the city's layout.
Melbourne's CBD, compared with other Australian cities, has comparatively unrestricted height limits and as a result of waves of post-war development contains five of the six tallest buildings in Australia, the tallest of which is the Eureka Tower, situated in Southbank. It has an observation deck near the top from where you can see above all of Melbourne's structures. The Rialto tower, the city's second tallest, remains the tallest building in the old CBD; its observation deck for visitors has recently closed.
The CBD and surrounds also contain many significant historic buildings such as the Royal Exhibition Building, the Melbourne Town Hall and Parliament House. Although the area is described as the centre, it is not actually the demographic centre of Melbourne at all, due to an urban sprawl to the south east, the demographic centre being located at Glen Iris.
Melbourne is typical of Australian capital cities in that after the turn of the 20th century, it expanded with the underlying notion of a 'quarter acre home and garden' for every family, often referred to locally as the Australian Dream. This, coupled with the popularity of the private automobile after 1945, led to the auto-centric urban structure now present today in the middle and outer suburbs. Much of metropolitan Melbourne is accordingly characterised by low density sprawl, whilst its inner city areas feature predominantly medium-density, transit-oriented urban forms. The city centre, Docklands, St. Kilda Road and Southbank areas feature high-density forms.
Melbourne is often referred to as Australia's garden city, and the state of Victoria was once known as the garden state. There is an abundance of parks and gardens in Melbourne, many close to the CBD with a variety of common and rare plant species amid landscaped vistas, pedestrian pathways and tree-lined avenues. There are also many parks in the surrounding suburbs of Melbourne, such as in the municipalities of Stonnington, Boroondara and Port Phillip, south east of the central business district. The extensive area covered by urban Melbourne is formally divided into hundreds of suburbs (for addressing and postal purposes), and administered as local government areas 31 of which are located within the metropolitan area.
"Melbourne Style" terrace houses are common in the inner suburbs and have been the subject of gentrification.
Melbourne has minimal public housing, and high demand for increasingly unaffordable rental housing. Public housing is usually provided by the Housing Commission of Victoria, and operates within the framework of the Commonwealth-State Housing Agreement, by which federal and state governments provide housing funding.
Melbourne is experiencing high population growth, generating high demand for housing. This housing boom has increased house prices and rents, as well as the availability of all types of housing. Subdivision regularly occurs in the outer areas of Melbourne, with numerous developers offering house and land packages. However, after 10 years of planning policies to encourage medium-density and high-density development in existing areas with greater access to public transport and other services, Melbourne's middle and outer ring suburbs are seeing significant brownfields redevelopment.
Like many urban environments, Melbourne faces some significant environmental issues, many of them relating to the city's large urban footprint and urban sprawl and the demand for infrastructure and services. One such issue is water usage, drought and low rainfall. Drought in Victoria, low rainfalls and high temperatures deplete Melbourne water supplies and climate change may have a long-term impact on the water supplies of Melbourne. Melbourne has been in a drought since 1997. In response to low water supplies and low rainfall due to drought, the government implemented water restrictions and a range of other options including: water recycling schemes for the city, incentives for household water tanks, greywater systems, water consumption awareness initiatives, and other water saving and reuse initiatives; also, in June 2007, the Bracks Government announced that a $3.1 billion Wonthaggi desalination plant would be built on Victoria's south-east coast, capable of treating 150 billion litres of water per year, as well as a 70 km (43 mi) pipeline from the Goulburn area in Victoria's north to Melbourne and a new water pipeline linking Melbourne and Geelong. Both projects are being conducted under controversial Public-Private Partnerships and a multitude of independent reports have found that neither project is required to supply water to the city and that Sustainable Water Management is the best solution. In the meantime, the drought must be weathered.
In response to Attribution of recent climate change, the City of Melbourne, in 2002, set a target to reduce carbon emissions to net zero by 2020 and Moreland City Council established the Zero Moreland program, however not all metropolitan municipalities have followed, with the City of Glen Eira notably deciding in 2009 not to become carbon neutral. Melbourne has one of the largest urban footprints in the world due to its low density housing, resulting in a vast suburban sprawl, with a high level of car dependence and minimal public transport outside of inner areas. Much of the vegetation within the city are non-native species, most of European origin, and in many cases plays host to invasive species and noxious weeds. Significant introduced urban pests include the Common Myna,Feral Pigeon,Brown Rat,European Wasp,Common Starling and Red Fox. Many outlying suburbs, particularly towards the Yarra Valley and the hills to the north-east and east, have gone for extended periods without regenerative fires leading to a lack of saplings and undergrowth in urbanised native bushland. The Department of Sustainability and Environment partially addresses this problem by regularly burning off. Several national parks have been designated around the urban area of Melbourne, including the Mornington Peninsula National Park, Port Phillip Heads Marine National Park and Point Nepean National Park in the south east, Organ Pipes National Park to the north and Dandenong Ranges National Park to the east. There are also a number of significant state parks just outside Melbourne. Responsibility for regulating pollution falls under the jurisdiction of the EPA Victoria and several local councils. Air pollution, by world standards, is classified as being good. Summer and autumn are the worst times of year for atmospheric haze in the urban area.
Another recent environmental issue in Melbourne was the Victorian government project of channel deepening Melbourne Ports by dredging Port Phillip Bay—the Port Phillip Channel Deepening Project. It was subject to controversy and strict regulations among fears that beaches and marine wildlife could be affected by the disturbance of heavy metals and other industrial sediments. Other major pollution problems in Melbourne include levels of bacteria including E. coli in the Yarra River and its tributaries caused by septic systems, as well as litter. Up to 350,000 cigarette butts enter the storm water runoff every day. Several programs are being implemented to minimise beach and river pollution. In February 2010, The Transition Decade, an initiative to transition human society, economics and environment towards sustainability, was launched in Melbourne.
A Music Victoria study released in March 2013 presented data of Melbourne's live music industry. The study found at least 460 venues in the city that host 62,000 live concerts annually and contribute A$1 billion per annum to the Victorian economy. A media article on the study explained: "On a typical Saturday night in Melbourne, 97,000 patrons attend a live music venue to see 900 musicians and 740 DJs perform. 2,730 staff are employed every Saturday in Melbourne’s live music venue."
In 2010, Melbourne was named by International Business Times as one of the best cities in the world for viewing street art and in 2008, its street art and lanes were voted by Lonely Planet readers as Australia's most popular cultural attraction.
Stalbridge Chambers (1890–1891) was built during the Victorian period in the Mannerist style.
The city also features the Shrine of Remembrance, which was built as a memorial to the men and women of Victoria who served in World War I and is now a memorial to all Australians who have served in war. The now demolished Queen Anne style APA Australian Building (1889), the world's 3rd tallest building at the time of completion, is said to have anticipated the skyscraper race in New York City and Chicago.
As of 2012, the city contains a total of 594 high-rise buildings, with 8 under construction, 71 planned and 39 at proposal stage making the city's skyline the second largest in Australia. The CBD is dominated by modern office buildings including the Rialto Towers (1986), built on the site of several grand classical Victorian buildings, two of which—the Rialto Building (1889) designed by William Pitt and the Winfield Building (1890) designed by Charles DEbro & Richard Speight—still remain today and more recently hi-rise apartment buildings including Eureka Tower (2006), which is listed as the 13th tallest residential building in the world in January 2014.
Residential architecture is not defined by a single architectural style, but rather an eclectic mix of houses, townhouses, condominiums, and apartment buildings of various scales in the metropolitan area (particularly in areas of urban sprawl). Free standing dwellings with relatively large gardens are perhaps the most common type of housing outside inner city Melbourne. Victorian terrace housing, townhouses and historic Italianate, Tudor revival and Neo-Georgian mansions are all common in neighbourhoods such as Toorak.
Melbourne is notable as the host city for the 1956 Summer Olympic Games (the first Olympic Games held in the southern hemisphere, with all previous games held in Europe and the United States), along with the 2006 Commonwealth Games. The city is home to three major annual international sporting events: the Australian Open (one of the four Grand Slam tennis tournaments); the Melbourne Cup (horse racing); and the Australian Grand Prix (Formula One). Melbourne was proclaimed the "World's Ultimate Sports City", in 2008, for the second time. The city is home to the National Sports Museum, which until 2003 was located outside the members pavilion at the Melbourne Cricket Ground. It reopened in 2008 in the Olympic Stand.
Melbourne's entertainment and conference precinct (Crown Casino and Convention Centre) make substantial annual contributions to the Victorian economy ($2 billion and $3 billion respectively).
Melbourne has a highly diversified economy with particular strengths in finance, manufacturing, research, IT, education, logistics, transportation and tourism. Melbourne is headquarters for many of Australia's largest corporations, including five of the ten largest in the country (based on revenue), and four of the largest six in the country (based on market capitalisation) (ANZ, BHP Billiton (the world's largest mining company), the National Australia Bank and Telstra); as well as such representative bodies and thinktanks as the Business Council of Australia and the Australian Council of Trade Unions. The city is home to Australia's largest and busiest seaport which handles more than $75 billion in trade every year and 39% of the nation's container trade.Melbourne Airport provides an entry point for national and international visitors, and is Australia's second busiest airport.
Melbourne is also an important financial centre. Two of the big four banks, NAB and ANZ, are headquartered in Melbourne. The city has carved out a niche as Australia’s leading centre for superannuation (pension) funds, with 40% of the total, and 65% of industry super-funds including the $40 billion-dollar Federal Government Future Fund. The city was rated 41st within the top 50 financial cities as surveyed by the MasterCard Worldwide Centers of Commerce Index (2008), second only to Sydney (12th) in Australia.
Melbourne is Australia's second-largest industrial centre. It is the Australian base for a number of significant manufacturers including Boeing, truck-makers Kenworth and Iveco, Cadbury as well as Bombardier Transportation and Jayco, among many others. It is also home to a wide variety of other manufacturers, ranging from petrochemicals and pharmaceuticals to fashion garments, paper manufacturing and food processing. The city also boasts a research and development hub for Ford Australia, as well as a global design studio and technical centre for General Motors and Toyota respectively.
CSL, one of the world’s top five biotech companies, and Sigma Pharmaceuticals have their headquarters in Melbourne. The two are the largest listed Australian pharmaceutical companies. Melbourne has an important ICT industry that employs over 60,000 people (one third of Australia's ICT workforce), with a turnover of $19.8 billion and export revenues of $615 million. In addition, tourism also plays an important role in Melbourne's economy, with approximately 7.6 million domestic visitors and 1.88 million international visitors in 2004. In 2008, Melbourne overtook Sydney with the amount of money that domestic tourists spent in the city, accounting for around $15.8 billion annually. Melbourne has been attracting an increasing share of domestic and international conference markets. Construction began in February 2006 of a $1 billion 5000-seat international convention centre, Hilton Hotel and commercial precinct adjacent to the Melbourne Exhibition and Convention Centre to link development along the Yarra River with the Southbank precinct and multi-billion dollar Docklands redevelopment.
Chinese New Year celebrations in Chinatown. Melbourne has a large Chinese population, the oldest continuous Chinese settlement in Australia and the second longest continuous Chinese settlement in the western world.
In Greater Melbourne (Greater Capital City Statistical Areas), 63.3% of people were born in Australia. The most common countries of birth were England 3.4%, India 2.7%, China (excludes SARs and Taiwan) 2.3%, Italy 1.7% and New Zealand 1.7%. In 2011 the most common ancestries in Greater Melbourne (Greater Capital City Statistical Areas) were English 21.1%, Australian 20.7%, Irish 6.9%, Scottish 5.7%, and Italian 5.5%.
Melbourne has the largest Greek-speaking population outside of Europe, a population comparable to some larger Greek cities like Larissa and Volos.Thessaloniki is Melbourne's Greek sister city). The Vietnamese surname Nguyen is the second most common in Melbourne's phone book after Smith. The city also features substantial Indian, Sri Lankan, and Malaysian-born communities, in addition to recent South African and Sudanese influxes. The cultural diversity is reflected in the city's restaurants serving various international cuisines.
Over two-thirds of Melburnians speak only English at home (68.1%). Chinese (mainly Cantonese and Mandarin) is the second-most-common language spoken at home (3.6%), with Greek third, Italian fourth and Vietnamese fifth, each with more than 100,000 speakers. Although Victoria's net interstate migration has fluctuated, the Melbourne statistical division has grown by approximately 70,000 people a year since 2005. Melbourne has now attracted the largest proportion of international overseas immigrants (48,000) finding it outpacing Sydney's international migrant intake on percentage, along with having strong interstate migration from Sydney and other capitals due to more affordable housing and cost of living, which have been two recent key factors driving Melbourne's growth.
In recent years, Melton, Wyndham and Casey, part of the Melbourne statistical division, have recorded the highest growth rate of all local government areas in Australia. Melbourne could overtake Sydney in population by 2028, The ABS has projected in two scenarios that Sydney will remain larger than Melbourne beyond 2056, albeit by a margin of less than 3% compared to a margin of 12% today. Melbourne's population could overtake Sydney by 2037 or 2039, according to the first scenario projected by the ABS; primarily due to larger levels of internal migration losses assumed for Sydney. Another study claims that Melbourne will overtake Sydney by 2040.
After a trend of declining population density since World War II, the city has seen increased density in the inner and western suburbs aided in part by Victorian Government planning blueprints, such as Postcode 3000 and Melbourne 2030 which have aimed to curtail the urban sprawl.
Melbourne was ranked the world's fourth top university city in 2008 after London, Boston and Tokyo in a poll commissioned by the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology. Melbourne is the home of the University of Melbourne, as well as Monash University, the largest university in Australia. The University of Melbourne is the second oldest university in Australia. It was ranked first among Australian universities in the 2010 THES international rankings.
The 2012–2013 Times Higher Education Supplement ranked the University of Melbourne as the 28th (30th by QS ranking) best university in the world. Monash University was ranked as the 99th (60th by QS ranking) best university in the world. Both universities are members of the Group of Eight. Swinburne University of Technology, based in the inner city Melbourne suburb of Hawthorn is ranked 76-100 in the world for Physics by the Academic Ranking of World Universities making Swinburne the only Australian university outside the Group of Eight to achieve a top 100 rating in a science discipline.
Other universities located in Melbourne include La Trobe University, RMIT University, Victoria University, which has nine campuses across Melbourne's western region, including three in the heart of Melbourne's Central Business District (CBD) and another four within ten kilometres (6.2 miles) of the CBD, and the St Patrick's campus of the Australian Catholic University. Deakin University maintains two major campuses in Melbourne and Geelong, and is the third largest university in Victoria. In recent years, the number of international students at Melbourne's universities has risen rapidly, a result of an increasing number of places being made available to full fee paying students.
Pay television in Melbourne is largely delivered through cable and satellite services. Foxtel and Optus are the main pay television providers. Sky News and Fox Sports both have studios facilities based in Melbourne.
Three daily newspapers serve Melbourne: the Herald Sun (tabloid), The Age (formerly broadsheet, now compact) and The Australian (national broadsheet). The free mX is also distributed weekday afternoon at railway stations and on the streets of central Melbourne.
Melbourne is home to a wide range of religious faiths, the most widely held faith of which is Christian (58.9%) with a large Catholic population (28.3%). The large Christian population is signified by the city's two large cathedrals—St Patrick's (Roman Catholic), and St Paul's (Anglican). Both were built in the Victorian era and are of considerable heritage significance as major landmarks of the city.
Approximately 145,000 Muslims call Melbourne home. Muslim religious life in Melbourne is centred on more than 25 mosques and a large number of prayer rooms at university campuses, workplaces and other venues. The best-attended mosques are at Preston, Broadmeadows, Newport and Doncaster. Melbourne also has five Islamic schools.
Melbourne has the largest Jewish population in Australia, the community numbering 45,000. The city is also home to the largest number of Holocaust survivors of any Australian city, indeed the highest per capita outside Israel itself. Reflecting this vibrant and growing community, Melbourne has a plethora of Jewish cultural, religious and educational institutions, including over 40 synagogues and 7 full-time parochial day schools, along with a local Jewish newspaper.
The local councils are responsible for providing the functions set out in the Local Government Act 1989 such as urban planning and waste management. Most other government services are provided or regulated by the Victorian state government, which governs from Parliament House in Spring Street. These include services which are associated with local government in other countries and include public transport, main roads, traffic control, policing, education above preschool level, health and planning of major infrastructure projects. The state government retains the right to override certain local government decisions, including urban planning, and Melburnian issues often feature prominently in state election.
Melbourne has a high dependency on the automobile for transport, particularly in the outer suburban areas where the largest number of cars are bought, with a total of 3.6 million private vehicles using 22,320 km (13,870 mi) of road, and one of the highest lengths of road per capita in the world. The early 20th century saw an increase in popularity of automobiles, resulting in large-scale suburban expansion, and today it has an extensive network of freeways and arterial roadways used by private vehicles including freight as well as public transport systems including bus and taxis. Major highways feeding into the city include the Eastern Freeway, Monash Freeway and West Gate Freeway (which spans the large West Gate Bridge), whilst other freeways circumnavigate the city or lead to other major cities, including CityLink (which spans the large Bolte Bridge), Eastlink, the Western Ring Road, Calder Freeway, Tullamarine Freeway (main airport link) and the Hume Freeway which links Melbourne and Sydney.
Melbourne has an integrated public transport system based around extensive train, tram, bus and taxi systems. Flinders Street Station was the world's busiest passenger station in 1927 and Melbourne's tram network overtook Sydney's to become the world's largest in the 1940s, at which time 25% of travellers used public transport but by 2003 it had declined to just 7.6%. The public transport system was privatised in 1999, symbolising the peak of the decline. Despite privatisation and successive governments persisting with auto-centric urban development into the 21st century, there have since been large increases in public transport patronage, with the mode share for commuters increasing to 14.8% and 8.4% of all trips. A target of 20% public transport mode share for Melbourne by 2020 was set by the state government in 2006. Since 2006 public transport patronage has grown by over 20%.
To use Melbourne public transport, passengers must pre-purchase a MYKI card from railway stations, convenience stores or online. The MYKI ticketing system was introduced by the Victorian Labor Government in 2009 and many problems have arisen since this time. Frustrated consumer sentiment has escalated to a stage where commuters continue to try to attain free rides—by not utilising the card—and writing articles or blogs to vent their frustration.
The Melbourne rail network has its origins in privately built lines from the 1850s gold rush era, and today the suburban network consists of 200 suburban stations on 16 lines which radiate from the City Loop, a partially underground metro section of the network beneath the Central Business District (Hoddle Grid). Flinders Street Station is Melbourne's busiest railway station, and was the world's busiest passenger station in 1926. It remains a prominent Melbourne landmark and meeting place. The city has rail connections with regional Victorian cities, as well as direct interstate rail services to Sydney and Adelaide and beyond which depart from Melbourne's other major rail terminus, Southern Cross Station in Spencer Street. In the 2008–2009 financial year, the Melbourne rail network recorded 213.9 million passenger trips, the highest in its history. Many rail lines, along with dedicated lines and rail yards are also used for freight. The Overland to Adelaide departs Southern Cross twice a week, while the XPT to Sydney departs twice a day.
Melbourne has the largest tram network in the world which had its origins in the city's 1880s land boom. In the 2010–2011 year 182.7 million passenger trips were made by tram. Melbourne's is Australia's only tram network to comprise more than a single line and consists of 250 km (155.3 mi) of track, 487 trams, 28 routes, and 1,773 tram stops. Sections of the tram network are on roads, while others are separated or are light rail routes. Melbourne's trams are recognised as iconic cultural assets and a tourist attraction. Heritage trams operate on the free City Circle route, intended for visitors to Melbourne, and heritage restaurant trams travel through the city and surrounding areas during the evening.
Melbourne's bus network consists of almost 300 routes which mainly service the outer suburbs and fill the gaps in the network between rail and tram services. 86.7 million passenger trips were recorded on Melbourne’s buses in 2007.
Ship transport is an important component of Melbourne's transport system. The Port of Melbourne is Australia's largest container and general cargo port and also its busiest. The port handled two million shipping containers in a 12 month period during 2007, making it one of the top five ports in the Southern Hemisphere.Station Pier on Port Phillip Bay is the main passenger ship terminal with cruise ships and the Spirit of Tasmania ferries which cross Bass Strait to Tasmania docking there. Ferries and water taxis run from berths along the Yarra River as far upstream as South Yarra and across Port Phillip Bay.
Water storage and supply for Melbourne is managed by Melbourne Water, which is owned by the Victorian Government. The organisation is also responsible for management of sewerage and the major water catchments in the region and will be responsible for the Wonthaggi desalination plant and North–South Pipeline. Water is stored in a series of reservoirs located within and outside the Greater Melbourne area. The largest dam, the Thomson River Dam, located in the Victorian Alps, is capable of holding around 60% of Melbourne's water capacity, while smaller dams such as the Upper Yarra Dam and the Cardinia Reservoir carry secondary supplies.
Gas is provided be three distribution companies:
SP AusNet which provides gas from Melbournes inner western suburbs to South Western Victoria.
Multinet Gas which provides gas from Melbournes inner eastern suburbs to Middle Eastern Victoria. (Owned by SP AusNet after acquisition but kept trading under the brand name Multinet Gas)
Envestra which provides gas from Melbournes inner northern suburbs to Northern Victoria as well as the majority of South Eastern Victoria.
Electricity is provided by five distribution companies:
Citipower which provides power to Melbourne's CBD, and some inner suburbs
Powercor which provides power to the outer western suburbs as well as all of western Victoria(Citipower and Powercor are owned by the same entity)
Jemena which provides power to the northern and inner western suburbs
^ "3218.0 - Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2012-13: ESTIMATED RESIDENT POPULATION, States and Territories - Greater Capital City Statistical Areas (GCCSAs)". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 3 April 2014. Retrieved 8 April 2014. ERP at 30 June 2013.
"3218.0 - Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2012-13: Victoria: Population Density". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 30 April 2013. Retrieved 9 April 2014.
"Greater Melbourne: Basic Community Profile" (xls). 2011 Census Community Profiles. Australian Bureau of Statistics. 28 March 2013. Retrieved 9 April 2014.
^ "History of the City of Melbourne". City of Melbourne. pp. 8–10. Retrieved 11 September 2009.
^ Lewis, Miles (1995). Melbourne: the city's history and development (2nd ed.). Melbourne: City of Melbourne. p. 25. ISBN 0-949624-71-3.
^ Cervero, Robert B. (1998). The Transit Metropolis: A Global Inquiry. Chicago: Island Press. p. 320. ISBN 1-55963-591-6.
"Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act". Department of the Attorney-General, Government of Australia. p. 45 (Section 125). Archived from the original on 11 March 2010. Retrieved 11 September 2009.
King, B. & Jago, L. Melbourne. TTI City Reports 1 (1999). pp 37-51.
^ Khoury, Matt & Prendergast, Luke (20 October. 2011). 50 reasons Melbourne is the World's most livable city. CNN Travel. Turner Broadcasting Systems. Retrieved 28 December 2013.
Tomazin, Farrah; Donovan, Patrick; Mundell, Meg (12 July 2002). "Dance trance". The Age. Melbourne: Fairfax. Retrieved 16 November 2009.
Gwynne, Michael (1985). Ballroom Sequence Dancing (2nd ed.). Hightstown: Princeton Book Company. p. 202. ISBN 0-7136-2750-6.
Stratton, David (1990). The Avocado Plantation: Boom and Bust in the Australian Film Industry. Sydney: Pan Macmillan. ISBN 0-7329-0250-9.
Chichester, Jo. "Return of the Kelly Gang". UNESCO Courier (UN) (2007 No.5). ISSN 1993-8616.
Astbury, David Leigh (1982). The Heidelberg School and the rural mythology. Melbourne: Department of Fine Arts, University of Melbourne. 65984.
^ The Melbourne Book: A History of Now. Published 2003. Hardie Grant Books. South Yarra. ISBN 1-74066-049-8. pg. 182
^ Australian Television: the first 24 years. Melbourne: Nelsen/Cinema Papers. 1980. p. 3.|accessdate= requires |url= (help)
Melbourne - City of Literature. Arts Victoria. Government of Victoria (Australia). Retrieved 24 December 2013.
"Government outlines vision for Port of Melbourne Freight Hub" (Press release). 2006. Retrieved 26 July 2007.[dead link]
^ "Investing in Transport Chapter 3 – East/West, Section 3.1.2 – Tram Network" (PDF). Department of Transport, Government of Victoria. Retrieved 21 November 2009.[dead link]
Gary Presland, The First Residents of Melbourne's Western Region, (revised edition), Harriland Press, 1997. ISBN 0-646-33150-7. Presland says on page 1: "There is some evidence to show that people were living in the Maribyrnong River valley, near present day Keilor, about 40,000 years ago."
Gary Presland, Aboriginal Melbourne: The Lost Land of the Kulin People, Harriland Press (1985), Second edition 1994, ISBN 0-9577004-2-3. This book describes in some detail the archaeological evidence regarding aboriginal life, culture, food gathering and land management, particularly the period from the flooding of Bass Strait and Port Phillip from about 7–10,000 years ago, up to the European colonisation in the nineteenth century.
^ "Foundation of the Settlement". History of the City of Melbourne. City of Melbourne. 1997. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
^ Isabel Ellender and Peter Christiansen, People of the Merri Merri. The Wurundjeri in Colonial Days, Merri Creek Management Committee, 2001 ISBN 0-9577728-0-7
Button, James (4 October 2003). "Secrets of a forgotten settlement". The Age. Melbourne: Fairfax. Retrieved 19 October 2008.
Annear, Robyn (2005). Bearbrass: Imagining Early Melbourne. Melbourne, Victoria: Black Inc. p. 6. ISBN 1863953973.
"Roads". City of Melbourne. Retrieved 29 September 2008.
Premier Postal History. "Post Office List". Retrieved 11 April 2008.
James Boyce, 1835: The Founding of Melbourne and the Conquest of Australia, Black Inc, 2011, page 151 citing Richard Broome, "Victoria" in McGrath (ed.), Contested Ground: 129
James Boyce, 1835: The Founding of Melbourne and the Conquest of Australia, Black Inc, 2011, p.186
James Boyce, 1835: The Founding of Melbourne and the Conquest of Australia, Black Inc, 2011, p.177
James Boyce, 1835: The Founding of Melbourne and the Conquest of Australia, Black Inc, 2011, p.199
James Boyce, 1835: The Founding of Melbourne and the Conquest of Australia, Black Inc, 2011, p.163
Victorian Cultural Collaboration. "Gold". Special Broadcasting Service. Archived from the original on 24 July 2008. Retrieved 18 July 2008.
"The Snowy Mountains Scheme and Multicultural Australia". ATSE. Retrieved 21 June 2010.[dead link]
Welcome to Chinatown. Chinatown Melbourne. Retrieved 11 December 2012.
Annear, Robyn (1999). Nothing But Gold. Text.
"Media Business Communication time line since 1861". Caslon. Retrieved 29 September 2008.[dead link]
Statesmen's Year Book 1889
"The Story of Melbourne". Argus. Melbourne, Australia: National Library of Australia. 9 September 1926. p. 8 Supplement: An Historic Souvenir. Retrieved 24 January 2012.
Beatty, Bill (8 November 1967). "Australian Almanac". Australian Women's Weekly. National Library of Australia. p. 33. Retrieved 16 February 2012.
Button, James (10 January 2004). "He came, he saw, he marvelled". The Age. Fairfax. Retrieved 7 July 2012.
^ Cannon, Michael (1966). The Land Boomers. Melbourne University Press; Cambridge University Press.
"Marvellous Melbourne – Introduction of the Hydraulic Lift". Museum Victoria. Retrieved 21 June 2010.
Miles, Lewis (1995). Melbourne the city's history and development. City of Melbourne. p. 47.
Lambert, Tim. "A Brief History of Melbourne". Local Histories. Retrieved 29 September 2008.
"Melbourne (Victoria) – growth of the city". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 29 September 2008.
"Fast Facts on Melbourne History". We Love Melbourne. Retrieved 29 September 2008.
Lewis, Miles (Melbourne the city's history and development) p. 113–114
"1961 – the Impact of Post-War Immigration". Museum Victoria. Retrieved 21 June 2010.
Ketchel, Misha (11 December 2012). "Boutique battle at Paris end of town". Age. Fairfax.
The art of the forgotten people by Tom Wilson
Chadstone Shopping Centre, Wolfgang Sievers, 1960. State Library of Victoria collection[dead link]
Judith Raphael Buckrich (1996) Melbourne's Grand Boulevard: the Story of St Kilda Road. Published State Library of Victoria
Logan, William (1985). The Gentrification of inner Melbourne: a political geography of inner city housing. Brisbane, Australia: University of Queensland Press. pp. 148–160. ISBN 0-7022-1729-8.
Millar, Royce (7 November 2005). "Road to ... where?". Age. Fairfax. Retrieved 11 December 2012.
Shepherd, Dick (4 February 1972). "Hotel men expected to press for Govt. aid". Age. Fairfax. Retrieved 25 April 2011.
"Tell Melbourne it's over, we won". Sydney Morning Herald. Fairfax. 31 December 2003. Retrieved 18 July 2008.
Saward, Joe (1 February 1996). "Interview – Judith Griggs". Grandprix. Inside F1. Retrieved 14 May 2010.
Lewis, Miles Melbourne the city's history and development p203,205–206
Marino, Melissa; Colebatch, Tim (24 March 2005). "Melbourne's population booms". The Age. Australia. Retrieved 18 July 2008.
"Delivering Melbourne's newest sustainable communities". Victoria Online. State of Victoria. 21 September 2006. Retrieved 21 June 2010.[dead link]
The Age, 12 February 2010
Ormonde, Tom (14 November 2009). "Housing the bubble that no one dares burst". Age (Melbourne). Retrieved 21 June 2010.
Dowling, Jason (16 February 2008). "Rent crisis forces urgent action". Age. Melbourne. Retrieved 21 June 2010.
Russell, Mark (2 January 2006). "Life's a beach in Melbourne". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 29 September 2008.
^ "Beach Report 2007–08" (PDF). EPA. Retrieved 29 September 2008.
Tapper, Andrew; Tapper, Nigel (1996). Gray, Kathleen, ed. The weather and climate of Australia and New Zealand (First ed.). Melbourne, Australia: Oxford University Press. p. 300. ISBN 0-19-553393-3.
Linacre, Edward; Geerts, Bart (1997). Climates and Weather Explained. London: Routledge. p. 379. ISBN 0-415-12519-7.
^ "Melbourne Regional Office". Climate statistics for Australian locations. Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 9 November 2010.
"Welcome to Melbourne". City of Melbourne. Retrieved 18 July 2008.
Waldon, Steve; Medew, Julia (10 August 2005). "Snow misses CBD lunch appointment". Age. Melbourne: Fairfax. Retrieved 18 July 2008.
"Snow falls in Melbourne". Sydney Morning Herald (Fairfax). 10 August 2005. Retrieved 1 July 2010.
"Snow in Victoria". Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 1 July 2010.
"Monthly climate statistics". Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 30 March 2012.
"MOUNT DANDENONG GTV9". Climate statistics for Australian locations. Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved June 2013.
"Laverton RAAF". Climate statistics for Australian locations. Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved February 2014.
"Melbourne Airport". Climate statistics for Australian locations. Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved February 2014.
"Mornington". Climate statistics for Australian locations. Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved February 2014.
Freeman-Greene, Suzy (10 August 2005). "Melbourne's love affair with lanes". The Age (Australia). Retrieved 18 July 2008.
Essential but unplanned : the story of Melbourne's lanes. Weston Bate. City of Melbourne : State Library of Victoria, 1994
"Eureka Tower". Eureka Tower Official. Archived from the original on 18 July 2008. Retrieved 29 September 2008.
Dobbin, Marika (8 October 2009). "End in view for Rialto's top deck". The Age (Melbourne). Retrieved 8 February 2010.
^ "Walking Melbourne, Heritage, Architecture, Skyscraper and Buildings Database". Walking Melbourne. Retrieved 28 September 2008.
"Melbourne Architecture". Melbourne Travel Guide. Retrieved 28 September 2008.[dead link]
"Glen Iris still the heart of city's sprawl". The Age (Melbourne). 5 August 2002. Retrieved 18 July 2008.
^ Lucas, Clay; Millar, Royce (11 March 2008). "Victoria: the garden state or greenhouse capital?". The Age (Melbourne). Retrieved 29 September 2008.
"Victoria". wilmap.com.au. Retrieved 29 September 2008.
^ "Victoria Australia, aka "The Garden State"". goway.com. Retrieved 29 September 2008.
"City of Melbourne — Parks and Gardens". City of Melbourne. Retrieved 28 September 2008.
"Vicnet Directory — Local Government". Vicnet. Retrieved 29 September 2008.[dead link]
"Metropolitan Melbourne – Live in Victoria". Liveinvictoria.vic.gov.au. 12 August 2009. Retrieved 21 June 2010.
Wilson, Andrew (17 April 2011). "City shortage pushes up rents". Domain. Fairfax. Retrieved 7 July 2012.
"The rental pressure cooker". The Age. Australia: Fairfax. 3 April 2010.
"Melbourne housing now 'severely unaffordable'". The Age. Australia: Fairfax. 24 January 2011.
Project Database | Urban Melbourne
"Water Storages: Water Report". Melbourne Water. 26 June 2009. Retrieved 21 June 2010.
"Drought, impact on water, meeting the challenge". Melbourne Water. Retrieved 21 June 2010.[dead link]
Rood, David (20 September 2007). "Desal plant to be public-private deal". Age. Melbourne: Fairfax. Retrieved 18 July 2008.
"Re-directing to Home Page". Melbourne Water. Retrieved 21 June 2010.
Riordan, Paul. "Glen Eira against green tide". News. Retrieved 21 June 2010.[dead link]
Cardew, R; Fanning, P; George, J (1998). Urban Footprints and Stormwater Management: A Council Survey. Australian Institute of Urban Studies. pp. 16–25.
"Target Species for Biological Control". Australian Weeds Committee. Retrieved 29 September 2008.
Thompson, Jeremy (1 July 2002). "Scientists declare war on Indian mynah". 7.30 Report. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 18 July 2008.
Bradbury, Garth (7 September 2004). "Update on Pigeon Management Issue" (PDF). City of Melbourne. Retrieved 22 October 2008.[dead link]
"Victoria a Rat's Nest". Herald Sun. News. 1 August 2009. Retrieved 7 July 2012.
Benson, Eugene (21 July 2009). "Rodent Rampage". Fairfax. Retrieved 21 June 2010.
"The picnickers nightmare: European wasp". CSIRO. Retrieved 18 July 2008.
Marks, C.A. & Bloomfield, T.E. (1999) Distribution and density estimates for urban foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Melbourne: implications for rabies control
"Fire and Biodiversity: The Effects and Effectiveness of Fire Management". Australian Government — Department of environment. Retrieved 29 September 2008.[dead link]
Murray, Robert; White, Kate; Kock, P (1995). State of Fire: A History of Volunteer Firefighting and the Country Fire Authority in Victoria. Hargreen. pp. 339 pages. ISBN 0-949905-63-1.
"About Parks Victoria". parkweb.vic.gov.au. Retrieved 29 September 2008.[dead link]
Wild Places of Greater Melbourne. R Taylor, 9780957747104, CSIRO Publishing, January 1999, 224pp, PB
CSIRO: Marine and atmospheric research. "Urban and regional air pollution". CSIRO. Archived from the original on 23 February 2008. Retrieved 18 July 2008.
"Garrett approves Port Phillip Bay dredging". ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 5 February 2008. Retrieved 18 July 2008.
Gardiner, Ashley (31 May 2008). "E coli running riot in Yarra River". Herald Sun (Australia: News). Retrieved 18 July 2008.
Australian Institute of Urban Studies and City of Melbourne. "AIUS Indicators". Environmental indicators for Metropolitan Melbourne. Australian Institute of Urban Studies. Retrieved 18 July 2008.[dead link]
"Victoria's Litter reduction Strategy" (PDF). State Government of Victoria. Retrieved 29 September 2008.
"Transition decade launch". Beyond Zero Emissions. 19 January 2010. Retrieved 21 June 2010.
"Melbourne 'world's top city'". The Age (Australia). 6 February 2004. Retrieved 18 July 2008.
"Melbourne confirmed as live music capital". ABC News. 25 March 2013. Retrieved 28 September 2013.
Paul Cashmere (21 March 2013). "Melbourne Claims Live Music Capital Of Australia Title". Noise11. Noise11. Retrieved 28 September 2013.
Allen, Jessica. The World’s Best Cities for Viewing Street Art[dead link], International Business Times (2010). Retrieved 16 October 2010.[dead link]
Topsfield, Jewel. Brumby slams Tourism Victoria over graffiti promotion, The Age (2008). Retrieved 16 October 2010.
Heath, Roderick (17 February 2010). Return to Oz: A History of Australian Cinema I (1896–1968), greencine.com. Retrieved in 20 October 2010.
^ More Australian than Aristotelian: The Australian Bushranger Film, 1904–1914. By William Routt
Docklands Studios Melbourne Credits
"Victorian Heritage Database". Heritage Victoria. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
Peter Fischer and Susan Marsden, Vintage Melbourne: beautiful buildings from Melbourne city centre, East Street Publications, Bowden South Australia 2007
^ Melbourne and scenes in Victoria 1925–1926 from Victorian Government Railways From the National Library of Australia
"Walking Melbourne". Retrieved 9 January 2012.
"Emporis Skyline Ranking". Emporis Corporation. All rights reserved. Retrieved 2 December 2012.
"100 Tallest Residential Buildings in the World". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. Retrieved 3 May 2012.
"1956 Melbourne". athletesedge.info. Retrieved 2 May 2013.
"Melbourne victorious again". Herald Sun. News. 1 April 2008. Retrieved 18 July 2008.
Strong, Geoff (5 March 2008). "Australian sports museum opens at MCG". Age. Melbourne: Fairfax. Retrieved 18 July 2008.
Smith, Patrick (1 August 2008). "AFL blueprint for third stadium". Australian. News. Retrieved 22 October 2008.
"Melbourne Storm: The Beginning". Melbourne Storm. Archived from the original on 14 July 2008. Retrieved 18 July 2008.
Reilly, Tom (18 January 2009). "City looks to make fresh tilt at Olympics". Age. Melbourne: Fairfax. Retrieved 19 April 2010.
"Crown casino records profit growth, up 130%". Businessday.com.au. Retrieved 10 June 2012.