The Principality of Great Perm (Russian: Великопермское княжество, Velikopermskoye knyazhestvo; Komi-Permyak: Ыджыт Перем öксуму, Чердін öксуму) emerged as a separate Komi-Permyak feudal entity in the 14th-15th centuries owing to the easing of the Novgorod Republic. The principality retained a degree of autonomy under the Muscovite rule, but was eventually absorbed into it in 1505.
The principality was located in the Upper Kama area and maintained close connections with nearby Perm of Vychegda (alternatively known as Perm the Minor). Both Perm states had paid tribute to the Novgorod Republic since the 9th or 10th centuries. Perm of Vychegda was Christianised by Stephen of Perm in the fourteenth century and subsequently subdued by Muscovy. In 1451 a House of Princes of Perm gained control of both territories as vassals of Moscow, with the titles of princes Vymsky, and princes Velikopermsky. In fact even though having been Christianised soon after Perm of Vychegda, Great Perm enjoyed greater independence, positioned between three powers: Moscow, the Novgorod, and Kazan. Finally in 1472 an army of vassals of Moscow with the princes Vymsky among them conquered Great Perm and captured their brother Prince Mikhail Velikopermsky. Nevertheless, the latter soon came back again from Moscow as governor and ruled his domain for life. His son Matthew Velikopermsky was finally deposed by the Grand Prince of Moscow in 1505.
Up to the early 18th century, the name Great Perm was officially used of the Upper Kama area, a southern part of which was governed by the Stroganov family.
The name was borrowed (as the 'Permian' period) by the nineteenth century geologist Sir Roderick Murchison to refer to rocks of a certain age, following extensive studies which he conducted in the region.
Ferdinand Heinrich Müller, Der ugrische Volksstamm, oder Untersuchungen über die Ländergebiete am Ural und am Kaukasus, in historischer, geographischer und ethnographischer Beziehung (1839), 334.
E.g. Allan S. C. Ross, "OWN Bjarmar : Russian Perm", Leeds Studies in English and Kindred Languages 6 (1937), 5-13. Ross (1937) suggests that the name is from an Old Norse term for "edge, shore", the bjarmar being the "people from the edge", a name which would then have been taken over by the population and changed to permi.