² For population and area info, see "CENSUS OF CUBA, PUERTO RICO, THE PHILIPPINES AND SPAIN. STUDY OF THEIR RELATIONSHIP". Voz de Galicia, January 1, 1898. mforos.com. August 22, 2010, 1898.Check date values in: |date= (help)
The Philippine–American War then ensued. Aguinaldo was captured by U.S. forces on March 23, 1901 and swore an oath accepting the authority of the United States over the Philippines and pledging his allegiance to the American government. On April 19, he issued a Proclamation of Formal Surrender to the United States, telling his followers to lay down their weapons and give up the fight, effectively ending the First Philippine Republic. Subsequently, the U.S. continued its annexation of the islands pursuant to the Treaty of Paris. The Philippines was under US sovereignty until 1946, when formal independence was granted by the Treaty of Manila. It was the first Constitutional Republic in Asia. It was titled "Constitución política", and was written in Spanish following the declaration of independence from Spain, proclaimed on January 20, 1899, and was enacted and ratified by the Malolos Congress, a Congress held in Malolos.
Although there were several Asian republics predating the First Philippine Republic, i.e. the Republic of Formosa or the Republic of Ezo, the Republic at Malolos was the first to frame a comprehensive constitution duly approved by an elected congress.
The constitution was approved by delegates to the Assembly of Representatives on January 20, 1899, and sanctioned by Aguinaldo the next day. The convention had earlier elected Aguinaldo president on January 1, 1899, leading to his inauguration on January 23. Parts of the constitution gave Aguinaldo the power to rule by decree. are of particular interest.
Organization of local government
The postage stamps of the Revolutionary Government.
Municipal and provincial governments under the Republic had quickly reorganized upon Aguinaldo's decrees of June 18 and 20, 1898. The Malolos Constitution had cited on Article 82 the organization of provincial and popular assemblies which had the power of taxation.
National budget and the Congress loan
The Inauguration of the First Philippine Republic in Malolos, January 23, 1899
One of the important laws passed by the Malolos Congress was the law providing for a national loan to buoy the national budget in which the Republic was trying to balance. The loan, worth 20 million pesos, was to be paid in 40 years with an annual interest of six percent. The law was decreed by Aguinaldo on November 30, 898.[clarification needed]
State of the Republican Army
When Philippine independence was declared on June 12, 1898 the Philippine Revolutionary Army was renamed the Philippine Republican Army. Aguinaldo then appointed Antonio Luna as Director or Assistant Secretary of War by September 28, 1898 and the Philippines first military school, the Academia Militar was established in Malolos. When the Republic was inaugurated on January 23, Luna had succeeded Artemio Ricarte as the Commanding General of the Republican Army. With such powers at hand, Luna attempted to transform the weak, undisciplined revolutionary army into a disciplined regular army for the service of the Republic.
On February 4, 1899, armed conflict erupted in Manila between Philippine Republic forces and American forces occupying the city subsequent to the conclusion of the Spanish-American War. That day President Aguinaldo issued a proclamation ordering and commanding that "peace and friendly relations with the Americans be broken and that the latter be treated as enemies, within the limits prescribed by the laws of war." The fighting quickly escalated into the Second Battle of Manila, with Philippine Republic forces being driven out of the city. On March 31, American forces captured Malolos, the initial seat of the Philippine Republic government, which had been gutted by fires set by withdrawing Philippine Republic forces. Emilio Aguinaldo and the core of the revolutionary government had by then moved to San Isidro, Nueva Ecija. Peace negotiations with the American Schurman Commission during a brief ceasefire in April–May 1899 failed, and San Isidro fell to American forces on May 16. The Philippine Republic core government had moved by then to Bamban, Tarlac, and subsequently moved to Tarlac town. Aguinaldo's party had already left Tarlac, the last capital of the Philippine Republic, by the time American troops occupied it on November 13.
On November 13, in a conference in Bayambang, Pangasinan, Aguinaldo decided to disperse his army and begin guerrilla war. From that point on, distance and the localistic nature of the fighting prevented him from exercising a strong influence on revolutionary or military operations. Recognizing that American troops blocked his escape east, he turned north and west on 15 November, crossing the mountains into La Union province. Aguinaldo's party eluded pursuing American forces, passing through Tirad Pass near Sagada, Mountain Province where the Battle of Tirad Pass was fought on December 2 as a rear guard action to delay the American advance and ensure his escape. At the time of the battle, Aguinaldo and his party were encamped in Cervantes, about 10 km south of the pass. After being notified by a rider of the outcome of the battle and the death of del Pilar, Aguinaldo ordered that camp be broken, and departed with his party for Cayan settlement. Aguinaldo was captured by American forces on March 23, 1901 in Palanan, Isabela. Following his capture, Aguinaldo announced allegiance to the United States on April 1, 1901, formally ending the First Republic and recognizing the sovereignty of the United States over the Philippines.
The cabinet only met in a few times in 1899 with the following men appointed to respective positions.
When it was constituted on January 22, 1899 in Malolos, that municipality became the seat of government of the Philippine Republic, and was serving as such when hostilities erupted between U.S. and Filipino forces in the Second Battle of Manila on February 4. American forces pushing north from Manila after the outbreak of fighting captured Caloocan on February 10. On March 29, as American forces threatened Malolos, the seat of government moved to San Isidro, Nueva Ecija.
In October 1899 American forces were in San Fernando, Pampanga and the Philippine Republic was headquartered not far north of there, in Angeles. On October 12, an American offensive to the north forced the Philippine Republic to relocate its headquarters in November to Tarlac, and then to Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya. On November 13, under pressure by American forces, Aguinaldo and a party departed Bayombong by rail for Calasiao, Pangasinan, from where they immediately proceeded eastwards to Sta. Barbara in order to evade pursuing American forces. In Sta. Barbara, they joined a force of some 1200 armed men let by General Gregorio del Pilar.
Aguinaldo's party, traveling with del Pilar's force, reached Manaoag, Pangasinan on November 15. There, the force was split into vanguard and rear guard elements, with Aguinaldo and del Pilar in the vanguard. The vanguard force overnighted in Tubao, La Union, departed there on November 16, and was in Naguilian, La Union by November 19, where word was received that American forces had taken Santo Tomas and had proceeded to Aringay. Aguinaldo's force arrived in Balaoan, La Union on November 19, pushed on the next day, and arrived at the Tirad Pass, a natural choke point, on November 23. General del Pilar decided to place a blocking force in Tirad Pass to delay pursuing American forces while Aguinaldo's party moved on.
The Battle of Tirad Pass took place on December 2, 1899. 52 men of del Pilar's 60 man force were killed, including del Pilar himself. However, the Filipinos under del Pilar held off the Americans long enough for Aguinaldo's party to escape. Aguinaldo, encamped with his party about 10 km south of the pass in Cervantes, Ilocos Sur, was appraised of the result of the battle by a rider, moved on and reached Banane settlement on December 7, where he paused to consider plans for the future. On December 16 Aguinaldo's party departed for Abra to join forces with General Manuel Tinio. The party traveled on foot through a pass at the summit of Mount Polis, and arrived at Ambayuan the next morning. The party pushed on to Banane, pursued closely by American forces. At this point, Aguinaldo's party consisted of one field officer, 11 line officers, and 107 men. The remainder of December 1899 was spent in continuous trek.
The party was at the border of Abra and Cagayan provinces on Aguanalldo's 31st birthday on March 23, 1900. The trek from place to place continued until about May 22, 1900, when Aguinaldo established a new headquarters in Tierra Virgen. On August 27, 1900, after American forces landed at Aparri, Cagayan, Aguinaldo concluded that Tierra Virgan had become untenable as a headquarters and decided to march to Palanan, Isabela. On December 6, 1899, the party reached Dumasari, and arrived in Palanan the following morning. Aguinaldo remained in Palanan until his capture there by American forces on March 25, 1901.
Malolos, the Official Capital of the First Philippine Republic
The Malolos Cathedral Basilica. The Palacio Presidencia and Office of the President Emilio Aguinaldo from September 1898 - March 1899.
In September 1898 General Emilio Aguinaldo made the Paroquia dela Inmaculada Concepcion an Augustinian erect town church of Malolos (now Cathedral Basilica) as the executive palace while the nearby Barasoain Church served as the legislative house where the Malolos Constitution was made. When the Americans captured Malolos Aguinaldo ordered General Antonio Luna to burn the Malolos Church including its huge silver altar.
Sideco house (Emilio Aguinaldo's Office at Nueva Ecija)
Sideco house served as General Frederick Funston's headquarters, and then, as Emilio Aguinaldo's capitol from the fall of Malolos on March 31, 1899 until May 17, 1899, when San Isidro was taken by the Americans.
The house had been the seat of General Emilio Aguinaldo's First Philippine Republic when he established it as his headquarters in San Isidro during the last part of his odyssey from the American forces.
On the 29th of March 1899, Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo arrived in San Isidro, Nueva Ecija and the town made as temporary capital of the First Philippine Republic. He stayed in this house which served as his executive office. When the Americans occupied San Isidro, the Sideco house served as the headquarters of Col. Frederick Funston who would later capture General Aguinaldo in Palanan, Isabela. General Aguinaldo's capture is said to have been planned in this house. It is now occupied by a Christian organization.
^ The Malolos Constitution was approved by the Malolos Congress on January 20, 1899, sanctioned by Aguinaldo on January 21, and promulgated on January 22 (see items 27 and 27a in Guevara 1972). The republic was proclaimed on 23 January (see items 28, 28a and 28b in Guevara 1972).
^ Sources disagree regarding the specific locations which were temporarily capitals of the Philippine Republic. For example:
Linn 2000a, p. 136 does not give a comprehensive list, but notes that Aguinaldo's cabinet, reduced to a handful of ministers, moved from capital to capital.
The three parts of the constitution which are of particular interest are:
Article 4, which lists three distinct powers, "the legislative, the executive, and the judicial", specifies that any two or more of these powers shall never be vested in a single individual, and specifies that the legislative power shall never be vested in a single individual.
Title VI, comprising articles 54 and 55, which mandate the election of seven legislators to a Permanent Commission which is to meet when convoked by its presiding officer during periods of legislative adjournment. This commission is mandated, among other things, "To act on pending matters which require proper action."
Article 99, which read, "Notwithstanding the general rule established in paragraph 2 of Article 4, in the meantime that the country is fighting for its independence, the Government is empowered to resolve during the closure of the Congress all questions and difficulties not provided for in the laws, which give rise to unforeseen events, by the issuance of decrees, of which the Permanent Commission shall be duly apprised as well as the Assembly when it meets in accordance with this Constitution."
In April 1899, the Permanent Commission is said to have been composed of Pedro A. Paterno, Felix Ferrer, Juan Nepomuceno, Arsenic Cruz Herrera, Joaquin Gonzales, Hugo Ilagan, and Alberto Barretto.
^ Treaty of Peace Between the United States and Spain; December 10, 1898, Yale
Aguinaldo's Proclamation of Formal Surrender to the United States, Filipino.biz.ph - Philippine Culture, April 19, 1901, retrieved December 5, 2009.
Carman Fitz Randolph (2009), "Chapter I, The Annexation of the Philippines", The Law and Policy of Annexation, BiblioBazaar, LLC, ISBN 978-1-103-32481-1
TREATY OF GENERAL RELATIONS BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES. SIGNED AT MANILA, ON 4 JULY 1946 (pdf), United Nations, archived from the original on 2011-07-23, retrieved 2007-12-10
Guevara, Sulpico, ed. (2005). The laws of the first Philippine Republic (the laws of Malolos) 1898-1899.. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Library (published 1972). pp. 104–119. Retrieved 2008-03-26.. (English translation by Sulpicio Guevara)