The Italian Constituent Assembly (Italian: Assemblea Costituente della Repubblica Italiana) was a parliamentary chamber which existed in Italy from 25 June 1946 until 31 January 1948. It had the task to write a constitution for the Italian Republic, which had replaced the Kingdom of Italy after its defeat during World War II.
On June 2, 1946 an election, the first since 1924, was held in Italy. Vote was allowed to all males and (for the first time) females older than 21. Voters received both a ballot for the choose between Republic or Monarchy, and one for the election of the deputies of the new Constituent Assembly; the latter would have the task to write a new constitutional chart, as established by a decree of 16 March 1946.
The referendum was won by a move to a Republic with some 12.7 million votes, against 10.7 millions favoring to continue being a monarchy. Umberto II, the last king of the country, left Italy on 13 June 1946. On 18 June 1946 the Corte di Cassazione proclaimed officially the victory of the Republic.
The election of the Constituent Assembly was based on a proportional system, based on 32 electoral regions. 573 deputies were to be elected, although the elections could not be held in South Tyrol, Trieste, Gorizia, Pola, Fiume and Zara, which were then under Allied or Yugoslav military control. Thus, 556 deputies resulted elected.
The assembly elected among its member a Constitutional Commission of 75 deputies, with the task to write down the constitution's general layout. The Commission was further divided into three sub-commissions:
Rights and Obligations of the Citizens, chaired by Umberto Tupini (DC)
A more restricted committee (informally known as "Committee of the Eighteen") had the task to write the constitution in accordance with the work of the three sub-commissions. The Constitutional Commission ended its work on 12 January 1947 and on 4 March the assembly started its debate about the text. The final text of the Constitution of Italy was approved on 22 December 1947.