YOURNA.COM

Clostridiales

  (Redirected from Clostridiales)
Jump to: navigation, search

The Clostridia are a highly polyphyletic class of Firmicutes, including Clostridium and other similar genera. They are distinguished from the Bacilli by lacking aerobic respiration. They are obligate anaerobes and oxygen is toxic to them. Species of the genus Clostridium are all Gram-positive and have the ability to form spores. Studies show they are not a monophyletic group, and their relationships are not entirely certain. Currently most are placed in a single order called Clostridiales, but this is not a natural group and is likely to be redefined in the future.

Most species of the genus Clostridium are saprophytic organisms found in many places in the environment, most notably the soil. However, the genus does contain some human pathogens (outlined below). The toxins produced by certain members of the Clostridium genus are among the most dangerous known. Examples are tetanus toxin (known as tetanospasmin) produced by C. tetani and botulinum toxin produced by C. botulinum.

Notable species of this class include:

Heliobacteria are also members of the class Clostridia.

Some of the enzymes produced by this group are used in bioremediation.

Phylogeny

The currently accepted taxonomy is based on the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN) and National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and the phylogeny is based on 16S rRNA-based LTP release 106 by The All-Species Living Tree Project

  Clostridia s.s.

Peptococcaceae 2





Peptococcaceae 1





Heliobacteriaceae



Peptococcaceae 3





Thermincola


  Negativicutes

Acidaminococcaceae



Veillonellaceae








Peptococcaceae 4





Dethiobacter alkaliphilus



Natranaerobiaceae






Anaerobranca {Clostridiales Family XIV. Incertae Sedis}




Eubacteriaceae




Garciella nitratireducens




Clostridiaceae 3




Clostridiales Family XI. Incertae Sedis [incl. Anaerosphaera aminiphila]





Eubacterium angustum



Proteiniborus ethanoligenes





Clostridiaceae 4 [incl. various Clostridium ssp.]





Clostridiales Family XII. Incertae Sedis



Clostridiales Family XIII. Incertae Sedis [incl. various Eubacterium spp.]





Clostridiaceae 2 [incl. various Clostridium ssp.]



Peptostreptococcaceae [incl. Clostridiales Family XIX. Incertae Sedis and various Clostridium & Eubacterium spp.]











  Clostridiales s.s.


Thermoanaerobacterales Unnamed clade III [incl. Caldicoprobacter]



Clostridiaceae 1 [incl. various Eubacterium spp.]






Gracilibacter thermotolerans



Lutispora thermophila





Ruminococcaceae [incl. Bacteroides cellulosolvens, Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum, Gemmiger formicilis, Oscillibacter valericigenes, Saccharofermentans acetigenes and various Clostridium & Eubacterium spp.]



Lachnospiraceae [incl. Anaerosporobacter mobilis, Desulfotomaculum guttoideum, Fusobacterium naviforme, Lactobacillus rogosae, Lactonifactor longoviformis, various Bacteroides, Clostridium, Eubacterium, & Ruminococcus ssp.]










Unassigned Clostridia s.s.

Note:
♠ Strains found at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) but not listed in the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LSPN)

See also

Clostridium

References

  1. J.P. Euzéby. "Clostridia". List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN) [1]. Retrieved 2011-11-17. 
  2. Sayers et al. "Clostridia". National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) taxonomy database [2]. Retrieved 2011-06-05. 
  3. All-Species Living Tree Project."16S rRNA-based LTP release 106 (full tree)". Silva Comprehensive Ribosomal RNA Database [3]. Retrieved 2011-11-17. 

You may also be interested in:

Buick Century
Mark Granier
Roads in Greece
Stephen Tennant
1702 in literature
Wenvoe Castle
Karel Betik
Shrenik Rao
Murder of Janine Balding
Khaled Souissi
Contact     Terms of Use     Privacy Policy
All Rights Reserved 2012-2014
0.055386