The coat of arms of a cardinal is indicated by a red galero (wide-brimmed hat) with 15 tassels on each side (the motto and escutcheon are proper to the individual cardinal).
A cardinal (Latin: sanctae romanae ecclesiae cardinalis) is a senior ecclesiastical official, an ecclesiastical prince, and usually an ordained bishop. The cardinals of the Roman Catholic Church are collectively known as the College of Cardinals. The duties of the cardinals include attending the meetings of the College and making themselves available individually or in groups to the pope as requested. Most have additional duties, such as leading a diocese or archdiocese or managing a department of the Roman Curia. A cardinal's other main function is electing the pope when the see becomes vacant. During the sede vacante, the period between a pope's death or resignation and the election of his successor, the day-to-day governance of the Church as a whole is in the hands of the College of Cardinals. The right to enter the conclave of cardinals where the pope is elected is limited to those who have not reached the age of 80 years by the day the vacancy occurs.
In 1059, the right of electing the pope was reserved to the principal clergy of Rome and the bishops of the seven suburbicarian sees. In the 12th century the practice of appointing ecclesiastics from outside Rome as cardinals began, with each of them assigned a church in Rome as his titular church or linked with one of the suburbicarian dioceses, while still being incardinated in a diocese other than that of Rome.
The term cardinal at one time applied to any priest permanently assigned or incardinated to a church, or specifically to the senior priest of an important church, based on the Latin cardo (hinge), meaning "principal" or "chief". The term was applied in this sense as early as the ninth century to the priests of the tituli (parishes) of the diocese of Rome. The Church of England retains an instance of this origin of the title, which is held by the two senior members of the College of Minor Canons of St Paul's Cathedral.
The pope was originally elected by the clergy and the people of the diocese of Rome. In medieval times, Roman nobility gained influence. The Holy Roman Emperors had a hand in choosing the pontiff. As the pope gained greater political independence, the right of election was, as stated in the bull In nomine Domini, reserved to cardinals in 1059, leaving the emperor only with a vague right of approbation.
The earlier influence of temporal rulers, notably the French kings, reasserted itself through the influence of cardinals of certain nationalities or politically significant movements. Traditions even developed entitling certain monarchs, including those of Austria, Spain, and Portugal, to nominate one of their trusted clerical subjects to be created cardinal, a so-called crown-cardinal.
In theory, the pope could substitute another body of electors for the College of Cardinals. Some have proposed that the Synod of Bishops should perform this function, a proposal that was not accepted, because, among other reasons, the Synod of Bishops can meet only when called by the pope.
Pope Sixtus V limited the number of cardinals to 70, comprising six cardinal bishops, 50 cardinal priests, and 14 cardinal deacons. Pope John XXIII exceeded that limit. At the start of 1971, Pope Paul VI set the number of cardinal electors at a maximum of 120, but set no limit on the number of cardinals generally. He also established a maximum age of eighty years for electors. His action deprived twenty-five living cardinals, including the three elevated by Pope Pius XI, of the right to participate in a conclave. Popes can dispense from church laws and have sometimes brought the number of cardinals under the age of 80 to more than 120. Pope Paul VI also increased the number of cardinal bishops by giving that rank to patriarchs of the Eastern Catholic Churches.
Each cardinal takes on a titular church, either a church in the city of Rome or one of the suburbicarian sees. The only exception is for patriarchs of Eastern Catholic Churches. Nevertheless, cardinals possess no power of governance nor are they to intervene in any way in matters which pertain to the administration of goods, discipline, or the service of their titular churches.
In 1630, Pope Urban VIII decreed their title to be Eminence (previously, it had been "illustrissimo" and "reverendissimo") and decreed that their secular rank would equate to Prince, making them secondary only to the Pope and crowned monarchs.
In accordance with tradition, they sign by placing the title "Cardinal" (abbreviated Card.) after their personal name and before their surname as, for instance, "John Card(inal) Doe" or, in Latin, "Ioannes Card(inalis) Cognomen". Similarly, the traditional official signature of popes inserts the Latin title Papa (abbreviated PP.) immediately after the personal name, as "Benedictus PP. XVI" for "Pope Benedict XVI". Pope Francis signs some documents simply as "Franciscus", but others in the traditional way as "Franciscus PP." Some writers, such as James-Charles Noonan, hold that, in the case of cardinals, the form used for signatures should be used also when referring to them, even in English; and this is the usual but not the only way of referring to cardinals in Latin. Several influential stylebooks, both secular and religious, however, indicate that the correct form for referring to a cardinal in English is as "Cardinal <Name> <Surname>". This style is also generally followed on the websites of the Holy See and episcopal conferences. Oriental Patriarchs who are created Cardinals customarily use "Sanctae Ecclesiae Cardinalis" as their full title, probably because they do not belong to the Roman clergy.
A well-known instance of the "John Cardinal Doe" style is that in the proclamation, in Latin, of the election of a new pope by the cardinal protodeacon: "Annuntio vobis gaudium magnum; habemus Papam: Eminentissimum ac Reverendissimum Dominum, Dominum (first name) Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae Cardinalem (last name), ..." (Meaning: "I announce to you a great joy; we have a Pope: The Most Eminent and Most Reverend Lord, Lord (first name) Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church (last name), ...")
Cardinal bishops (cardinals of the episcopal order) are among the most senior prelates of the Catholic Church. Though in modern times most cardinals are also bishops, the term "cardinal bishop" only refers to the cardinals who are titular bishops of one of the "suburbicarian" sees.
In early times, the privilege of papal election was not reserved to the cardinals, and for centuries the person elected was customarily a Roman priest and never a bishop from elsewhere. To preserve apostolic succession the rite of consecrating him a bishop had to be performed by someone who was already a bishop. The rule remains that, if the person elected Pope is not yet a bishop, he is consecrated by the Dean of the College of Cardinals, the Cardinal Bishop of Ostia.
The Dean of the College of Cardinals, the primus inter pares of the College of Cardinals, is elected by the cardinal bishops holding suburbicarian sees from among their own number, an election, however, that must be approved by the Pope. Formerly the position of dean belonged to the longest-serving of the cardinal bishops.
The suburbicarian sees are seven: Ostia, Albano, Porto and Santa Rufina, Palestrina, Sabina and Mentana, Frascati, and Velletri. Velletri was united with Ostia from 1150 until 1914, when Pope Pius X separated them again, but decreed that whatever cardinal bishop became Dean of the College of Cardinals would keep the suburbicarian see he already held, adding to it that of Ostia, with the result that there continued to be only six cardinal bishops.
Since 1962, the cardinal bishops have only a titular relationship with the suburbicarian sees, with no powers of governance over them. Each see has its own bishop, with the exception of Ostia, in which the Cardinal Vicar of the see of Rome is apostolic administrator.
The current cardinal bishops of the suburbicarian dioceses are:
For a period ending in the mid-20th century, long-serving cardinal priests were entitled to fill vacancies that arose among the cardinal bishops, just as cardinal deacons of ten years' standing are still entitled to become cardinal priests. Since then, cardinals have been advanced to cardinal bishop exclusively by papal appointment.
In 1965, Pope Paul VI decreed in his motu proprioAd Purpuratorum Patrum that patriarchs of the Eastern Catholic Churches who were named cardinals would also be part of the episcopal order, ranked after the six cardinal bishops of the suburbicarian sees (who had been relieved of direct responsibilities for those sees by Pope John XXIII three years earlier). Not holding a suburbicarian see, they cannot elect the dean or become dean. There are currently three Eastern Patriarchs who are cardinal bishops:
If a Latin Rite patriarch is made a cardinal, he ranks as a cardinal priest, not as a cardinal bishop. While the incumbents of some sees are regularly made cardinals, no see carries an actual right to the cardinalate, even if its bishop is a patriarch.
Cardinal priests are the most numerous of the three orders of cardinals in the Catholic Church, ranking above the cardinal deacons and below the cardinal bishops. Those who are named cardinal priests today are generally bishops of important dioceses throughout the world, though some hold Curial positions.
In modern times, the name "cardinal priest" is interpreted as meaning a cardinal who is of the order of priests. Originally, however, this referred to certain key priests of important churches of the Diocese of Rome, who were recognized as the cardinal priests, the important priests chosen by the pope to advise him in his duties as Bishop of Rome (the Latin cardo means "hinge"). Certain clerics in many dioceses at the time, not just that of Rome, were said to be the key personnel — the term gradually became exclusive to Rome to indicate those entrusted with electing the bishop of Rome, the pope.
While the cardinalate has long been expanded beyond the Roman pastoral clergy and Roman Curia, every cardinal priest has a titular church in Rome, though they may be bishops or archbishops elsewhere, just as cardinal bishops are given one of the suburbicarian dioceses around Rome. Pope Paul VI abolished all administrative rights cardinals had with regard to their titular churches, though the cardinal's name and coat of arms are still posted in the church, and they are expected to preach there if convenient when they are in Rome.
While the number of cardinals was small from the times of the Roman Empire to the Renaissance, and frequently smaller than the number of recognized churches entitled to a cardinal priest, in the 16th century the College expanded markedly. In 1587, Pope Sixtus V sought to arrest this growth by fixing the maximum size of the College at 70, including 50 cardinal priests, about twice the historical number. This limit was respected until 1958, and the list of titular churches modified only on rare occasions, generally when a building fell into disrepair. When Pope John XXIII abolished the limit, he began to add new churches to the list, which Popes Paul VI and John Paul II continued to do. Today there are close to 150 titular churches, out of over 300 churches in Rome.
The cardinal who is the longest-serving member of the order of cardinal priests is titled cardinal protopriest. He had certain ceremonial duties in the conclave that have effectively ceased because he would generally have already reached age 80, at which cardinals are barred from the conclave. The current cardinal protopriest is Paulo Evaristo Arns of Brazil.
The cardinal deacons are the lowest-ranking cardinals. Cardinals elevated to the diaconal order are either officials of the Roman Curia or priests elevated after their 80th birthday. Bishops with diocesan responsibilities, however, are created cardinal priests.
Cardinal deacons derive originally from the seven deacons in the Papal Household and the seven deacons who supervised the Church's works in the districts of Rome during the early Middle Ages, when church administration was effectively the government of Rome and provided all social services. Cardinal deacons are given title to one of these deaconries.
Cardinals elevated to the diaconal order are mainly officials of the Roman Curia holding various posts in the church administration. Their number and influence has varied through the years. While historically predominantly Italian the group has become much more internationally diverse in later years. While in 1939 about half were Italian by 1994 the number was reduced to one third. Their influence in the election of the Pope has been considered important, they are better informed and connected than the dislocated cardinals but their level of unity has been varied. Under the 1587 decree of Pope Sixtus V, which fixed the maximum size of the College of Cardinals, there were 14 cardinal deacons. Later the number increased. As late as 1939 almost half of the cardinals were members of the curia. Pius XII reduced this percentage to 24 percent. John XXIII brought it back up to 37 percent but Paul VI brought it down to 27 percent where John Paul II has maintained this ratio.
As of 2005, there were over 50 churches recognized as cardinalatial deaconries, though there were only 30 cardinals of the order of deacons. Cardinal deacons have long enjoyed the right to "opt for the order of cardinal priests" (optazione) after they have been cardinal deacons for 10 years. They may on such elevation take a vacant "title" (a church allotted to a cardinal priest as the church in Rome with which he is associated) or their diaconal church may be temporarily elevated to a cardinal priest's "title" for that occasion. When elevated to cardinal priests, they take their precedence according to the day they were first made cardinal deacons (thus ranking above cardinal priests who were elevated to the college after them, regardless of order).
When not celebrating Mass but still serving a liturgical function, such as the semiannual Urbi et Orbi papal blessing, some Papal Masses and some events at Ecumenical Councils, cardinal deacons can be recognized by the dalmatics they would don with the simple white mitre (so called mitra simplex).
The Cardinal protodeacon, the senior cardinal deacon in order of appointment to the College of Cardinals, has the privilege of announcing a new pope's election and name (once he has been ordained to the Episcopate) from the central balcony at the Basilica of Saint Peter in Vatican City State. In the past, during papal coronations, the Proto-Deacon also had the honor of bestowing the pallium on the new pope and crowning him with the papal tiara. However, in 1978 Pope John Paul I chose not to be crowned and opted for a simpler papal inauguration ceremony, and his three successors followed that example. As a result, the Cardinal protodeacon's privilege of crowning a new pope has effectively ceased although it could be revived if a future Pope were to restore a coronation ceremony. However, the Proto-Deacon still has the privilege of bestowing the pallium on a new pope at his papal inauguration. “Acting in the place of the Roman Pontiff, he also confers the pallium upon metropolitan bishops or gives the pallium to their proxies.” The current Cardinal Proto-Deacon is Renato Raffaele Martino.
*Ceased to be protodeacon upon being raised to the order of cardinal-priest
†Was protodeacon at time of death
Special types of cardinals
The Cardinal Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, assisted by the Vice-Camerlengo and the other prelates of the office known as the Apostolic Camera, has functions that in essence are limited to a period of sede vacante of the papacy. He is to collate information about the financial situation of all administrations dependent on the Holy See and present the results to the College of Cardinals, as they gather for the papal conclave.
Cardinals who are not bishops
Until 1917, it was possible for someone who was not a priest, but only in minor orders, to become a cardinal (see "lay cardinals", below), but they were enrolled only in the order of cardinal deacons. For example, in the 16th century, Reginald Pole was a cardinal for 18 years before he was ordained a priest. In 1917 it was established that all cardinals, even cardinal deacons, had to be priests, and, in 1962, Pope John XXIII set the norm that all cardinals be ordained as bishops, even if they are only priests at the time of appointment. As a consequence of these two changes, canon 351 of the 1983 Code of Canon Law requires that a cardinal be at least in the order of priesthood at his appointment, and that those who are not already bishops must receive episcopal consecration. Several cardinals aged over 80 or close to it when appointed have obtained dispensation from the rule of having to be a bishop. These were all appointed cardinal-deacons, but one of them, Roberto Tucci, lived long enough to exercise the right of option and be promoted to the rank of cardinal-priest.
A cardinal who is not a bishop is still entitled to wear and use the episcopal vestments and other pontificalia (episcopal regalia: mitre, crozier, zucchetto, pectoral cross and ring). Even if not a bishop, any cardinal has honorary precedence over bishops who are not cardinals, but he cannot perform the functions reserved solely to bishops, such as ordination. The prominent priests who since 1962 were not ordained bishops on their elevation to the cardinalate were over the age of 80 or near to it, and so no cardinal who was not a bishop has participated in recent papal conclaves.
At various times, there have been cardinals who had only received first tonsure and minor orders but not yet been ordained as deacons or priests. Though clerics, they were inaccurately called "lay cardinals" and were permitted to marry. Teodolfo Mertel was among the last of the lay cardinals. When he died in 1899 he was the last surviving cardinal who was not at least ordained a priest. With the revision of the Code of Canon Law promulgated in 1917 by Pope Benedict XV, only those who are already priests or bishops may be appointed cardinals. Since the time of Pope John XXIII a priest who is appointed a cardinal must be consecrated a bishop, unless he obtains a dispensation.
In addition to the named cardinals, the pope may name secret cardinals or cardinals in pectore (Latin for in the breast).
During the Western Schism, many cardinals were created by the contending popes. Beginning with the reign of Pope Martin V, cardinals were created without publishing their names until later, termed creati et reservati in pectore.
A cardinal named in pectore is known only to the pope; not even the cardinal so named is necessarily aware of his elevation, and in any event cannot function as a cardinal while his appointment is in pectore. Today, cardinals are named in pectore to protect them or their congregations from reprisals if their identities were known.
If conditions change, so that the pope judges it safe to make the appointment public, he may do so at any time. The cardinal in question then ranks in precedence with those raised to the cardinalate at the time of his in pectore appointment. If a pope dies before revealing the identity of an in pectore cardinal, the cardinalate expires.
Of the 232 cardinals that Pope John Paul II elevated, four were named in pectore. The identities of three of these were subsequently revealed:
The fourth cardinal was created in 2003. John Paul II did not reveal this cardinal's identity prior to his death, or in the 15-page testament he wrote during his papacy and which was released after his death. Consequently, this cardinalate expired. Some suspect that this "secret Cardinal" was Archbishop Stanisław Dziwisz, a close, longtime friend of John Paul II. However, he was made a cardinal at the March 2006 Consistory anyway, as was announced by Pope Benedict XVI on 22 February 2006.
Cardinal Pell wearing the ordinary dress of a cardinal: black cassock with scarlet (red) piping and buttons, scarlet fascia (sash), pectoral cross on a chain, and a scarlet zucchetto.
Cardinal Bertone in dress for hot tropical countries (white cassock with scarlet piping and buttons).
When in choir dress, a Latin-rite cardinal wears scarlet garments — the blood-like red symbolizes a cardinal's willingness to die for his faith. Excluding the rochet — which is always white — the scarlet garments include the cassock, mozzetta, and biretta (over the usual scarlet zucchetto). The biretta of a cardinal is distinctive not merely for its scarlet color, but also for the fact that it does not have a pompon or tassel on the top as do the birettas of other prelates. Until the 1460s, it was customary for cardinals to wear a violet or blue cape unless granted the privilege of wearing red when acting on papal business. His normal-wear cassock is black but has scarlet piping and a scarlet fascia (sash). Occasionally, a cardinal wears a scarlet ferraiolo which is a cape worn over the shoulders, tied at the neck in a bow by narrow strips of cloth in the front, without any 'trim' or piping on it. It is because of the scarlet color of cardinals' vesture that the bird of the same name has become known as such.
Eastern Catholic cardinals continue to wear the normal dress appropriate to their liturgical tradition, though some may line their cassocks with scarlet and wear scarlet fascias, or in some cases, wear Eastern-style cassocks entirely of scarlet.
In previous times, at the consistory at which the pope named a new cardinal, he would bestow upon him a distinctive wide-brimmed hat called a galero. This custom was discontinued in 1969 and the investiture now takes place with the scarlet biretta. In ecclesiastical heraldry, however, the scarlet galero is still displayed on the cardinal's coat of arms. Cardinals had the right to display the galero in their cathedral, and when a cardinal died, it would be suspended from the ceiling above his tomb. Some cardinals will still have a galero made, even though it is not officially part of their apparel.
To symbolize their bond with the papacy, the pope gives each newly appointed cardinal a gold ring, which is traditionally kissed by Catholics when greeting a cardinal (as with a bishop's episcopal ring). The pope chooses the image on the outside: under Pope Benedict XVI it was a modern depiction of the crucifixion of Jesus, with Mary and John to each side. The ring includes the pope's coat of arms on the inside.
Cardinals have in canon law a "privilege of forum" (i.e., exemption from being judged by ecclesiastical tribunals of ordinary rank): only the pope is competent to judge them in matters subject to ecclesiastical jurisdiction (cases that refer to matters that are spiritual or linked with the spiritual, or with regard to infringement of ecclesiastical laws and whatever contains an element of sin, where culpability must be determined and the appropriate ecclesiastical penalty imposed). This does not exempt them from being judged for alleged violations of civil law. The pope either decides the case himself or delegates the decision to another tribunal, usually one of the tribunals or congregations of the Roman Curia. Absent such delegation, other ecclesiastical courts, even the Roman Rota, are incompetent to judge a case against a cardinal.
Henry Kitchell Webster, Hutton Webster, Early European History, p. 604. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=rXSqwPFMn3oC.
Are There Any Limitations on the Power of the Pope?
Electing a New Pope
College at 203, 121 Electors & 82 Non-Electors
Pope Paul VI, motu proprio Ad purpuratorum Patrum
^ Pope Paul VI., Motuproprio "Ad Purpuratorum Patrum Collegium" (11 February 1965), par. II
Code of Canon law: 357-1
Code of Canon law: 350
They were formerly called illustrissimi and reverendissimi; but Pope Urban VIII (of the Barberini family), in 1630, established the above as their title of honour. Edward Wigglesworth, Thomas Gamaliel Bradford: Encyclopædia Americana: a popular dictionary of arts, sciences. Volume 4. Page 493.
As the exclusive electors of the pope (at least since 1179), cardinals were deemed to be the ecclestiastical equivalents of the Holy Roman Empire's 'Prince-Electors,' an extremely elite group with precedence over all other nobility (including archdukes, dukes and counts), who were tasked with the responsibility of electing Holy Roman Emperors.... A decree of June 10, 1630, by Urban VII bestowed the title "His Eminence", historically reserved for high nobility, upon the cardinals, thus elevating them above the 'His Excellency,' then being used to refer to Italian princes." Guruge, Anura. The Next Pope. Alton, New Hampshire. 2010. Page 81.
Authoritarian, keenly conscious of his position, Urban kept business in his own hands and rarely discussed it with his cardinals: to compensate them he gave them the rank of princes of the church and a right to the title of 'eminence' (June 1630). Oxford Dictionary of Popes: Urban VIII
See, for instance, his signature on his encyclical letter Lumen fidei.
Examples are documents dated 8 August 2013; 17 January 2014; 2 April 2014
Noonan, The Church Visible, p. 205
An Internet search will uncover some hundreds of examples of "Cardinalis Ioannes <surname>", examples modern and centuries-old (such as this from 1620), and the phrase "dominus cardinalis Petrus Caputius" is found in a document of 1250.
"At first reference Cardinal John Doe. At subsequent references the cardinal or Doe" (Reuters Handbook of Journalism). The Associated Press stylebook, quoted by Douglas LeBlanc on Anglicanism out of AP style at the Times? agrees fully: "The preferred form for first reference is to use Cardinal, Archbishop or Bishop before the individual's name: Cardinal Timothy Manning, archbishop of Los Angeles. On second reference, Manning or the cardinal."
The Publications Style Book of the Franciscan Holy Name Province lays down: "Use the form 'Cardinal John Smith' instead of the older 'John Cardinal Smith'", and cites the Catholic News Service stylebook.
The websites of the Holy See (except for signatures), and of the Episcopal Conferences in the United States, England and Wales, Ireland and the Australia agree with the stylebooks. The Bishops' Conference of Scotland uses both styles side by side. On diocesan sites, the "John Cardinal Doe" style is found on, for example, those of Boston, Chicago, Dublin, New York, Toronto, Washington, Galveston-Houston, Detroit, Durban, Colombo, Bombay, and the "Cardinal John Doe" on, for example, those of Armagh,Los Angeles, Philadelphia, St Andrews and Edinburgh, Wellington, Westminster.
cfr. Klaus Ganzer, Kardinäle als Kirchenfürsten?: Stimmen der Zeit 2011, Nr. 5, S. 313-323
Benedict XVI, 19 April 2005
John P. Beal, New Commentary on the Code of Canon Law (Paulist Press 2000 ISBN 978-0-80910502-1), p. 468
Umberto Benigni, "Ostia and Velletri" in Catholic Encyclopedia (New York 1911)
Pope Pius X, motu proprio Edita a Nobis of 5 May 1914 in Acta Apostolicae Sedis VI (1914), p. 219-220
EWTN, "History of Papal Electoral Law"
Pope John XXIII, motu proprio Suburbicariis sedibus of 11 April 1962 in Acta Apostolicae Sedis LIV (1962), pp. 253-256
John Hardon, Modern Catholic Dictionary
^ Thomas J. Reese, Inside the Vatican: The Politics and Organization of the Catholic Church, Harvard University Press, 1996 p. 92-93
"Consistories of Martin V - 23 July 1423 (II), Note". The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church.
"His Holiness John Paul II Short Biography". Holy See Press Office. 30 June 2005. Retrieved 20 April 2007.
"His Holiness John Paul II Biography". Holy See Press Office. 30 June 2005. Retrieved 20 April 2007.
The College of Cardinals General Documentazion http://www.vatican.va/news_services/press/documentazione/documents/cardinali_documentazione/cardinali_documentazione_generale_en.html#Ordinary%20Public%20Consistory
Applause and tears in Basilica greet Pontiff (26 November 2007) Belfast Telegraph. Retrieved 2008-06-01. Quote: "In a ceremony televised across the world cardinal-elect Sean Brady knelt before Pope Benedict XVI and pledged his allegiance to the Church before receiving his special red birretta — a symbol of a cardinal's dignity and willingness to shed blood for the increase of the Christian faith."
^ Instruction on the dress, titles and coat-of-arms of cardinals, bishops and lesser prelates.. L'Osservatore Romano, English ed. 17 April 1969. pp. vol.4. Retrieved 2006-09-01.
Paulson, Michael (2006-03-25). Bling! examination of the ring of Cardinal O'Malley, with photos. Boston.com Boston Globe, 25 March 2006. Retrieved on 2010-09-08 from http://www.boston.com/news/globe/city_region/paulson/blog/2006/03/25/index.html.
Salvador Miranda. The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church. A digital resource consisting of the biographical entries of the cardinals from 900 to 2009 and of the events and documents concerning the origin of the Roman cardinalate and its historical evolution
Next Cardinal Creating Consistory by Pope Benedict XVI -- The Required Background Data (including statistical data and links). Popes and the Papcy website (Anura Guruge). Retrieved 2010-09-08.
GCatholic on all Cardinals
List of All Cardinals By Precedence by GCatholic
List of all Cardinal Titular Churches by GCatholic
List of all Cardinal Deaconries by GCatholic
Catholic-pages List of Cardinals
Thomas J. Reese, Inside the Vatican: The Politics and Organization of the Catholic Church, Harvard University Press, 1996