At 621,342 as of July 1, 2012, the population of Baltimore increased by 1,100 residents over the previous year, ending over six decades of population loss since its peak in 1950. The Baltimore Metropolitan Area has grown steadily to approximately 2.7 million residents in 2010; the 20th largest in the country. Baltimore is also a principal city in the larger Baltimore–Washington metropolitan area of approximately 8.4 million residents.
Sixth Regiment fighting railroad strikers, July 20, 1877
Key witnessed the bombardment from this ship and after seeing the huge American flag on the morning of September 14, 1814, he wrote "The Star-Spangled Banner", a poem recounting the attack. Key's poem was set to a 1780 tune by British composer John Stafford Smith, and "The Star-Spangled Banner" became the official national anthem of the United States in 1931.
Following the Battle of Baltimore, the city's population grew rapidly. The construction of the federally funded National Road (which later became part of U.S. Route 40) and the private Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (B&O) made Baltimore a major shipping and manufacturing center by linking the city with major markets in the Midwest. A distinctive local culture started to take shape, and a unique skyline peppered with churches and monuments developed. Baltimore acquired its moniker "The Monumental City" after an 1827 visit to Baltimore by President John Quincy Adams. At an evening function Adams gave the following toast: "Baltimore: the Monumental City- May the days of her safety be as prosperous and happy, as the days of her dangers have been trying and triumphant." Baltimore suffered one of the worst riots of the antebellum South in 1835, when bad investments led to the Baltimore bank riot.
Maryland remained part of the Union during the American Civil War despite being a slave state, in addition to popular support for secession in its southern and eastern regions, along with Baltimore, all of which benefited greatly from both the tobacco and slave trades. When Union soldiers marched through the city at the start of the war, Confederate sympathizers attacked the troops, which led to the Baltimore riot of 1861. Four soldiers and 12 civilians were killed during the riot, which caused Union troops to occupy Baltimore. Maryland came under direct federal administration—in part, to prevent the state from seceding—until the end of the war in April 1865.
Following an economic depression known as the Panic of 1873, the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad company attempted to lower its workers' wages, leading to the Great Railroad Strike of 1877. On July 20, 1877, Maryland Governor John Lee Carroll called up the 5th and 6th Regiments of the National Guard to end the strikes, which had disrupted train service at Cumberland in western Maryland. Citizens sympathetic to the railroad workers attacked the National Guard troops as they marched from their armories in Baltimore to Camden Station. Soldiers from the 6th Regiment fired on the crowd, killing 10 and wounding 25. Rioters then damaged B&O trains and burned portions of the rail station. Order was restored in the city on July 21–22 when federal troops arrived to protect railroad property and end the strike.
On February 7, 1904, the Great Baltimore Fire destroyed over 1,500 buildings in 30 hours, leaving more than 70 blocks of the downtown area burned to the ground. Damages were estimated at $150 million—in 1904 dollars. As the city rebuilt during the next two years, lessons learned from the fire led to improvements in firefighting equipment standards.
The city grew in area by annexing new suburbs from the surrounding counties, the last being in 1918, when the city acquired portions of Baltimore County and Anne Arundel County. A state constitutional amendment, approved in 1948, required a special vote of the citizens in any proposed annexation area, effectively preventing any future expansion of the city's boundaries.
The relative size of the city's black population grew from 23.8% in 1950 to 46.4% in 1970. The Baltimore riot of 1968 occurred following the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. in Memphis, Tennessee, on April 4, 1968. Coinciding with riots in other cities, public order was not restored until April 12, 1968. The Baltimore riot cost the city of Baltimore an estimated $10 million (US$ 68 million in 2014). A total of 11,000 Maryland National Guard and federal troops were ordered into the city.
Baltimore is in north-central Maryland on the Patapsco River close to where it empties into the Chesapeake Bay. The city is also located on the fall line between the Piedmont Plateau and the Atlantic Coastal Plain, which divides Baltimore into "lower city" and "upper city". The city's elevation ranges from sea level at the harbor to 480 feet (150 m) in the northwest corner near Pimlico.
According to the 2010 Census, the city has a total area of 92.052 square miles (238.41 km2), of which 80.944 sq mi (209.64 km2) is land and 11.108 sq mi (28.77 km2) is water. The total area is 12.07 percent water.
Baltimore borders with Baltimore County in most directions. It is bordered by Anne Arundel County to the south.
The city is rich in architecturally significant buildings in a variety of styles. The Baltimore Basilica (1806–1821) is a neoclassical design by Benjamin Latrobe, and also the oldest Catholic cathedral in the United States. In 1813 Robert Cary Long, Sr., built for Rembrandt Peale the first substantial structure in the United States designed expressly as a museum. Restored, it is now the Municipal Museum of Baltimore, or popularly the Peale Museum.
The McKim Free School was founded and endowed by John McKim, although the building was erected by his son Isaac in 1822 after a design by William Howard and William Small. It reflects the popular interest in Greece when the nation was securing its independence, as well as a scholarly interest in recently published drawings of Athenian antiquities.
The Phoenix Shot Tower (1828), at 234.25 feet (71.40 m) tall, was the tallest building in the United States until the time of the Civil War. It was constructed without the use of exterior scaffolding. The Sun Iron Building, designed by R.C. Hatfield in 1851, was the city's first iron-front building and was a model for a whole generation of downtown buildings. Brown Memorial Presbyterian Church, built in 1870 in memory of financier George Brown, has stained glass windows by Louis Comfort Tiffany and has been called "one of the most significant buildings in this city, a treasure of art and architecture" by Baltimore Magazine.
The streets of Baltimore are organized in a grid pattern, lined with tens of thousands of brick and formstone-faced rowhouses. In The Baltimore Rowhouse, Mary Ellen Hayward and Charles Belfoure considered the rowhouse as the architectural form defining Baltimore as "perhaps no other American city." In the mid-1790s, developers began building entire neighborhoods of the British-style rowhouses, which became the dominant house type of the city early in the 19th century.
Formstone facings, now a common feature on Baltimore rowhouses, were an addition patented in 1937 by Albert Knight. John Waters characterized formstone as "the polyester of brick" in his 30-minute documentary film, Little Castles: A Formstone Phenomenon.
Oriole Park at Camden Yards is considered by many to be the most beautiful baseball park in Major League Baseball, and has inspired many other cities to build their own versions of this retro style ballpark. Camden Yards along with the National Aquarium have helped revive the Inner Harbor from what once was an industrial district full of dilapidated warehouses into a bustling commercial district full of bars, restaurants and retail establishments. Today, the Inner Harbor boasts the highest, most desirable real estate in the Mid-Atlantic.
Baltimore's newly rehabilitated Everyman Theatre was honored by the Baltimore Heritage at the 2013 Preservation Awards Celebration in 2013. Everyman Theatre will receive an Adaptive Reuse and Compatible Design Award as part of Baltimore Heritage's 2013 historic preservation awards ceremony. Baltimore Heritage is Baltimore's nonprofit historic and architectural preservation organization, which works to preserve and promote Baltimore's historic buildings and neighborhoods.
The city plan of Baltimore (1852) by Fielding Lucas, Jr. of Baltimore (after last Annexation of 1818 and before future Annexations of 1888 and 1918–1919)
Baltimore is divided officially into nine geographical regions (clock-wise): Northern, Northeastern, Eastern, Southeastern, Southern, Southwestern, Western, Northwestern, and Central; with each corallated with and also patrolled by a respective similar district in the Baltimore City Police Department. However, it is common for local residents, long-time citizens and the media to divide the city simply by East or West Baltimore, using the main commercial/business and residential thoroughfare of Charles Street as a dividing line, and/or into North and South using equally notable Baltimore Street as a dividing line, or also using the additional segments of Northeast, Southeast, Southwest and Northwest too.
South Baltimore, a mixed industrial and residential area, consists of the "Old South Baltimore" peninsula area of the city to Whetstone Point below the "Inner Harbor", and east of the old B&O Railroad's Camden line tracks and the Baltimore–Washington Parkway (Maryland Route 295) extension into Russell Street downtown. It is a mixed socio-economic region consisting of working class, culturally and ethnically diverse waterfront neighborhoods such as Locust Point and Riverside around the large park of the same name; The historic Federal Hill area, just south of the "Inner Harbor", is now home to many working professionals, pubs and restaurants. At the end of the peninsula is historic Fort McHenry, a National Shrine and park since the end of World War I, when the old U.S. Army Hospital surrounding the 1798 star-shaped battlements was torn down. Across from the old South Baltimore peninsula and the Middle and Ferry (now South) branches of the Patapsco River spanned by the Hanover Street Bridge (1854/1917; recently renamed the Vietnam Veterans Bridge), are more working class, lower-income residential areas such as Cherry Hill and Brooklyn, Curtis Bay, and former neighborhoods Fairfield, Wagner's Point and Hawkins Point, with Fort Armistead bordering northern Anne Arundel County on the city's south side. The area below the Hanover Street Bridge and Middle/Ferry Branches was annexed to the city in 1919 from being independent towns.
Westport is a slowly gentrifying neighborhood on the western shore of the Middle Branch (formerly Ridgeley's Cove) of the Patapsco River along the southwestern spoke of Old Annapolis Road (Maryland Route 648) with blocks of 1920s-era porch-front rowhouses divided by the Baltimore–Washington Parkway running southwest from Russell Street. With the recent demolition of the former Carr-Lowry glass factory and the Westport power generating station of the Baltimore Gas and Electric Company which occupied the western shore of the waterfront, the area has been approved for tremendous waterfront development in the years to come, rivaling the original Inner Harbor and Fells Point/Canton neighborhoods of decades before. The neighborhood is a mix of retirees, vacant homeowners/speculators, professionals, and low-income families. The waterfront portion of the community remains fenced off, pending future development.
Further southwest and west of the Middle Branch of the Patapsco are the working middle-class communities of Lakeland, Mount Winans, Violetville, and Morrell Park, which are sometimes mistakenly included in the description of southern Baltimore City communities.
"East Baltimore" consists of the Northeastern, Eastern, and Southeastern districts:
Northeast is primarily a residential neighborhood, home to Morgan State University, bounded by the city line of 1919 on its northern and eastern boundaries, Sinclair Lane, Erdman Avenue, and Pulaski Highway on its southern boundaries and The Alameda on its western boundaries. It has undergone demographic shifts over many years and has become predominantly African American. Also in this wedge of the city on 33rd Street is the elite academic humanities, liberal arts and social studies high school Baltimore City College, third oldest public secondary school in the United States, founded downtown in 1839. Across Loch Raven Boulevard is the campus of the old Eastern High School, closed in 1984 and renovated for bio-med offices for Johns Hopkins, as well as the former historic site of old Memorial Stadium for the Baltimore Colts and Baltimore Orioles, now replaced by an YMCA athletic and housing complex.
Eastern Baltimore is the heart of what is considered "Old East Baltimore" and is home to Johns Hopkins Hospital and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine on Broadway. Located below Erdman Avenue and Sinclair Lane, above Orleans Street, it is an almost exclusively African-American area, made up of low-income residential neighborhoods. Entire blocks of abandoned buildings and its chronic problem with drug trafficking made this area a frequent on-site film location for Homicide: Life on the Street, an NBC television series based on a bestselling book by David Simon, former reporter for The Baltimore Sun in 1997-2001, and the sequels The Corner and The Wire, an HBO cable television drama produced from 2002 to 2008. East Baltimore is also home to one the most important and costly development projects in the city surrounding the Johns Hopkins Hospital. East Baltimore Development Initiative is the developer and has made strides in making positive changes throughout this immediate area.
Southeast Baltimore, located below Fayette Street, bordering the Inner Harbor and the Northwest Branch of the Patapsco River on its western boundary, the city line of 1919 on its eastern boundaries and the Baltimore Harbor/Patapsco River on its southern boundaries, is a mixed industrial and residential area. Areas west of Patterson Park Avenue are arguably some of the most diverse areas of the city, and is often considered an extension of Downtown Baltimore. Between Patterson Park Avenue and Haven Street, there are two main demographic areas, with areas south of Eastern Avenue predominantly white, and areas north of Eastern Avenue diverse with a growing Hispanic community, acting as a medium between the predominantly black area of East Central Baltimore and the predominantly white area to the south. East of Haven Street, the neighborhoods start to vary widely. There is a significant mix of races and cultures, a common characteristic of Southeastern neighborhoods. Further beyond the city limits in Baltimore County on the Patapsco Neck peninsula between Back River and the Patapsco are the many working-class suburban neighborhoods of Dundalk; Sparrows Point with its massive steel manufacturing plants and shipyards, formerly owned for decades by Bethlehem Steel Corporation; North Point, a former War of 1812 battlefield, now a residential and commercial area; and Fort Howard, with its residential community amidst the former Spanish-American War-era fort, now a county park, and the U.S. Veterans Administration medical complex. Canton, is one of the most rapidly developing neighborhoods along Baltimore's prime waterfront. Canton Crossing development is to be completed by 2014, with retail, residential, office, and parks.
"West Baltimore" consists of the Northwestern, Western, and Southwestern districts:
Northwestern is bounded by the county line of 1919 on its northern and western boundaries, Gwynns Falls Parkway on the south and Pimlico Road on the east, is home to Pimlico Race Course and Sinai Hospital. Its neighborhoods are mostly residential. The area was the center of Baltimore's Jewish community since after World War II, when it gradually moved here from the Jonestown and Old Town neighborhoods along East Lombard Street ("Corned Beef Row") in "Old East Baltimore", where they had established themselves since the 1830s. The district's Park Heights and Pimlico neighborhoods underwent white flight beginning in the 1960s and became almost exclusively black, but later re-integrated with a new influx of Jewish refugees from the former Soviet Union since the mid-1980s. The Jewish migration has continued further northwest into Baltimore County in the Pikesville and Reisterstown corridor. According to the North American Jewish Data Bank, as of 2011[update] Baltimore had a Jewish population of around 30,900 people, or 5.0% of the total city population. Northern Parkway divides the Northwestern district into two distinctly different demographic areas. Neighborhoods to the north of the parkway, such as Mount Washington and Cheswolde, are predominantly white, with low-density suburban housing. South of the parkway, the neighborhoods are mostly black. Some of the neighborhoods south of the parkway also have suburban housing, but several are high density urban communities, with a greater percentage of residents reported below the poverty level in the 2000 census.
West Baltimore is located west of downtown and the Martin Luther King, Jr. Boulevard, is the heart of "Old West Baltimore", bounded by Gwynns Falls Parkway, Fremont Avenue, and West Baltimore Street. Coppin State University, Mondawmin Mall, and Edmondson Village, located in this district, have been historic cultural and economic centers of the city's African American community. Once home to many middle to upper class African Americans, over the years the more affluent residents have migrated to other sections of the city or beyond the city line into Baltimore County and Howard County. Income levels below the poverty line were reported by the 2000 census for more than 45 percent of residents in some of the district's neighborhoods, which are almost exclusively black. Like East Baltimore, the area's crime problems have provided subject material for television series, such as The Wire. Local organizations, such as the Sandtown Habitat for Humanity and the Upton Planning Committee, have been steadily transforming formerly blighted areas of the Western district into clean, safe and well-kept communities with increasing amounts of money and attention such as Sandtown-Winchester.
Under the Köppen classification, Baltimore lies within the humid subtropical climate zone (Cfa), with four distinct seasons, and is part of USDA plant hardiness zones 7b and 8a. Summers are hot and humid, with frequent afternoon thunderstorms. Spring and autumn are warm, with spring being the wettest season in terms of the number of precipitation days. Winters are cool but variable, with sporadic snowfall: January has a daily average of 35.8 °F (2.1 °C), though temperatures reach 50 °F (10 °C) rather often and drop below 20 °F (−7 °C) when Arctic air masses affect the area. The average seasonal snowfall is 20.1 inches (51 cm), but it varies greatly depending on the winter.
Freezing rain and sleet occurs a few times each winter in the area, as warm air overrides cold air at the low to mid-levels of the atmosphere. When the wind blows from the east, the cold air gets dammed against the mountains to the west and the result is freezing rain or sleet. Summers are hot and humid with a daily average in July of 80.7 °F (27.1 °C), and the combination of heat and humidity leads to rather frequent thunderstorms.
Due to an urban heat island effect in the city proper and a moderating effect of the Chesapeake Bay, the outlying and inland parts of the Baltimore metro area are usually cooler than the city proper and the coastal towns. Thus, in the northern and western suburbs, winter snowfall is more significant, and some areas average more than 30 inches (76 cm) of snow per year.
Extreme temperatures range from −7 °F (−22 °C) on February 9, 1934, and February 10, 1899, up to 108 °F (42 °C) on July 22, 2011. On average, 100 °F (38 °C)+ temperatures occur on 0.9 days annually, 90 °F (32 °C)+ on 37 days, and there are 10 days where the high fails to breach the freezing mark.
At the 2010 Census, there were 620,961 people residing in Baltimore, a decrease of 4.6% since 2000. The 2012 Census estimate has the population of Baltimore at 621,342 as of July 2012, an increase of 1,100 residents over the previous year and the first increase in population since its peak in 1950. Downtown Baltimore and its surrounding neighborhoods are seeing a resurgence of young professionals and immigrants, which is mirroring major cities all over. The increase, attributed to growing international migration and fewer people abandoning the city, is the second census estimate since Mayor Stephanie Rawlings-Blake announced at her inauguration in December 2011 that her main goal is to increase the city's population by "10,000 families" within a decade.
After New York City, Baltimore was the second city in the United States to reach a population of 100,000. In the 1830, 1840, and 1850 US censuses, Baltimore was the second-largest city in population, surpassed by Philadelphia in 1860. It was among the top 10 cities in population in the United States in every census up to the 1980 census, and after World War II had a population of nearly a million.
Although Baltimore's population has continued to decline since 1950, the number of families living downtown has increased significantly over the past 10 years, according to Downtown Partnership of Baltimore, Inc. (Note: the population of Baltimore increased by 1,100 residents between July 2011 and July 2012 according to the latest estimate by the Census. This is the first increase since its peak in 1950.) Downtown Baltimore's core area experienced a population increase of 130% since 2000. The area in a one-mile radius of downtown between Pratt and Light streets grew 13.6% during that time as well. New construction and the conversion of obsolete commercial buildings into residences has been a primary factor for growth in the central city. The average household income in downtown increased 39.7% from $45,895 to $64,128. Despite the increase in the number of families, Baltimore's downtown still lost about 10,000 total residents since the 2000 Census, a decline of about 6%.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, Baltimore's population lived in a total of 294,579 housing units in 2009. Age ranges were 22.4% under 18 years old, 11.8% at age 65 or older, and 65.8% from 18 to 64 years old. Baltimore's population was 53.4% female. The median age is 35 years old.
A statistical abstract prepared by the U.S. Census Bureau estimated the median income for a household in the city during 2008 at $30,078, and the median income for a family at $48,216. The same abstract also listed a per capita income of $22,885 for the city in 2008, with 15.4% of families and 19.3% of the population below the poverty line.
Housing in Baltimore is relatively inexpensive for large, coastal cities of its size. The median sale price for homes in Baltimore in 2012 was $95,000. Despite the housing collapse, and along with the national trends, Baltimore residents still face slowly increasing rent (up 3% in the summer of 2010).
Baltimore's racial and ethnic divides - Red is white European, Blue is African-American, Green is Asian-American, Orange is Hispanic/Latino, Gray is Other, and each dot is 25 people.
The homeless population in Baltimore is steadily increasing; it exceeded 4,000 people in 2011. The increase in the number of young homeless people was particularly severe. The Baltimore—Towson metropolitan area is home to a self-identifying gay and bisexual community estimated at 100,031 individuals, the 18th largest in the United States. In 2012, voters statewide approved the legalization of same-sex marriage in Maryland and authorized them to take place beginning January 1, 2013.
Crime in Baltimore, generally concentrated in areas high in poverty and drug activity, has been an issue for many years. The city reported 223 homicides in 2010. This has been part of a general trend in all violent crimes for the city, which have declined from 21,799 in 1993 to 9,316 in 2010. Even with stark population decline taken into account—Baltimore went from 732,968 residents in 1993 to 620,961 in 2010—the drop in violent crime was significant, falling from 3.0 incidents per 100 residents to 1.6 incidents per 100 residents. Baltimore's level of violent crime is still much higher than the national average, however. In 2009, a total of 1,318,398 violent crimes were reported nationwide across the United States, equivalent to a rate of just 0.4 incidents per 100 people.
In 2011, Baltimore police reported 196 homicides, the lowest number of slayings in the city since a count of 197 homicides in 1978 and far lower than the peak homicide count of 353 slayings in 1993. The drop is significant, but the homicide rate is nevertheless in the same range the city saw in the mid-1980s, when the city had another 130,000 residents. City leaders credit a sustained focus on repeat violent offenders and increased community engagement for the continued drop, reflecting a nationwide decline in crime.
Once a predominantly industrial town, with an economic base focused on steel processing, shipping, auto manufacturing, and transportation, the city experienced deindustrialization which cost residents tens of thousands of low-skill, high-wage jobs. The city now relies on a low-wage service economy, which accounts for 90% of jobs in the city.
Around the turn of the century, Baltimore, Maryland was the leading US manufacturer of rye whiskey and straw hats. It also led in refining of crude oil, brought to the city by pipeline from Pennsylvania.
Baltimore's unemployment rate in July 2012 was 11%, and the 2012 closure of a major steel plant at Sparrows Point is expected to have a further impact on employment and the local economy. One quarter of Baltimore residents (and 37% of Baltimore children) live in poverty.
Baltimore's history and attractions have allowed the city to become a strong tourist destination on the East Coast. In 2012, the city saw 21.3 million visitors visit downtown Baltimore alone, spending $4.4 billion. The Baltimore Visitor Center, which is operated by Visit Baltimore, is located on Light Street in the Inner Harbor. Much of the city's tourism centers around the Inner Harbor, with the National Aquarium being Maryland's top tourist destination.
Historically a working-class port town, Baltimore has sometimes been dubbed a "city of neighborhoods", with 72 designated historic districts traditionally occupied by distinct ethnic groups. Most notable today are three downtown areas along the port: the Inner Harbor, frequented by tourists due to its hotels, shops, and museums; Fells Point, once a favorite entertainment spot for sailors but now refurbished and gentrified (and featured in the movie Sleepless in Seattle); and Little Italy, located between the other two, where Baltimore's Italian-American community is based – and where former U.S. House Speaker Nancy Pelosi grew up. Further inland, Mount Vernon is the traditional center of cultural and artistic life of the city; it is home to a distinctive Washington Monument, set atop a hill in a 19th-century urban square, that predates the more well-known monument in Washington, D.C. by several decades. Baltimore also has a significant German American population, and was the second largest port of immigration to the United States, behind New York. A Chinatown dating back to at least the 1880s, and having consisted of no more than 400 Chinese residents, still has a local Chinese-American association based there and has only one Chinese restaurant as of 2009.
Each year the Artscape takes place in the city in the Bolton Hill neighborhood, due to its proximity to Maryland Institute College of Art. Artscape styles itself as the "largest free arts festival in America". Each May, the Maryland Film Festival takes place in Baltimore, using all five screens of the historic Charles Theatre as its anchor venue.
The nickname "Charm City" comes from a 1975 meeting of advertisers seeking to improve the city's reputation.
Baltimore Harbor's restoration has made it "a city of boats", with several historic ships and other attractions on display and open for the public to visit. The USS Constellation, the last Civil War-era vessel afloat, is docked at the head of the Inner Harbor; the USS Torsk, a submarine that holds the Navy's record for dives (more than 10,000); and the Coast Guard cutter Taney, the last surviving U.S. warship that was in Pearl Harbor during the Japanese attack on Dec 7, 1941, and which engaged Japanese Zero aircraft during the battle.
Also docked is the lightship Chesapeake, which for decades marked the entrance to Chesapeake Bay; and the Seven Foot Knoll Lighthouse, the oldest surviving screw-pile lighthouse on Chesapeake Bay, which once marked the mouth of the Patapsco River and the entrance to Baltimore. All of these attractions are owned and maintained by the Historic Ships in Baltimore organization. The Inner Harbor also is the home port of Pride of Baltimore II, the state of Maryland's "goodwill ambassador" ship, a reconstruction of a famous Baltimore Clipper ship.
The Wire, was set and filmed in Baltimore. House of Cards, conversely, was set in Washington, DC but filmed in Baltimore.
One thing visitors quickly notice is that some locals refer to their city as "Balmer", dropping the "t". The traditional local white accent, particular to some working-class areas of the city, has long been noted and celebrated as "Baltimorese" or "Bawlmorese". While in other parts of the city, locals refer to their city as "Baldamore". As a member of the Mid-Atlantic English dialect group, Baltimore's dialect shares many characteristics with Philadelphia's, such as the addition of an "eh" sound before a long "o". Its influence distinguishes Baltimore, especially with words containing "oi" flattened into an "aw" sound.
The Baltimore Symphony Orchestra is an internationally renowned orchestra, founded in 1916 as a publicly funded municipal organization. The current Music Director is Marin Alsop, a protégé of Leonard Bernstein. Centerstage is the premier theater company in the city and a regionally well-respected group. The Lyric Opera House is the home of Lyric Opera Baltimore, which operates there as part of the Patricia and Arthur Modell Performing Arts Center. The Baltimore Consort has been a leading early music ensemble for over twenty-five years. The France-Merrick Performing Arts Center, home of the restored Thomas W. Lamb-designed Hippodrome Theatre, has afforded Baltimore the opportunity to become a major regional player in the area of touring Broadway and other performing arts presentations.
Baltimore also boasts a wide array of professional (non-touring) and community theater groups. Aside from Center Stage, resident troupes in the city include Everyman Theatre, Single Carrot Theatre, and Baltimore Theatre Festival. Community theaters in the city include Fells Point Community Theatre and the Arena Players Inc., which is the nation's oldest continuously operating African American community theater. In 2009, the Baltimore Rock Opera Society, an all-volunteer theatrical company, launched its first production.
The Peabody Institute, located in the Mount Vernon neighborhood, is the oldest conservatory of music in the United States. Established in 1857, it is one of the most prestigious in the world, along with Juilliard, Eastman, and the Curtis Institute. The city is also home to the Baltimore School for the Arts, a public high school in the Mount Vernon neighborhood of Baltimore. The institution is nationally recognized for its success in preparation for students entering music (vocal/instrumental), theatre (acting/theater production), dance, and visual arts.
Baltimore has a long and storied baseball history, including its distinction as the birthplace of Babe Ruth in 1895. The original 19th century Baltimore Orioles were one of the most successful early franchises, featuring numerous hall of famers during its years from 1882 to 1899. As one of the eight inaugural American League franchises, the Baltimore Orioles played in the AL during the 1901 and 1902 seasons. The team moved to New York City before the 1903 season and was renamed the New York Highlanders, which later became the New York Yankees. Ruth played for the minor league Baltimore Orioles team, which was active from 1903 to 1914. After playing one season in 1915 as the Richmond Climbers, the team returned the following year to Baltimore, where it played as the Orioles until 1953.
The team currently known as the Baltimore Orioles has represented Major League Baseball locally since 1954 when the St. Louis Browns moved to the city of Baltimore. The Orioles advanced to the World Series in 1966, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1979 and 1983, winning three times (1966, 1970 and 1983), while making the playoffs all but one year (1972) from 1969 through 1974.
College lacrosse is a popular sport in the spring, as the Johns Hopkins Blue Jays men's lacrosse team has won 44 national championships, the most of any program in history. In addition, Loyola University won its first men's NCAA lacrosse championship in 2012.
The Baltimore Grand Prix debuted along the streets of the Inner Harbor section of the city's downtown on September 2–4, 2011. The event played host to the American Le Mans Series on Saturday and the IndyCar Series on Sunday. Support races from smaller series were also held, including Indy Lights. After three consecutive years, on September 13, 2013, it was announced that the event would not be held in 2014 or 2015 due to scheduling conflicts.
The City of Baltimore boasts over 4,900 acres of parkland. The Baltimore City Department of Recreation and Parks manages the majority of parks and recreational facilities in the city including Patterson Park, Federal Hill Park, and Druid Hill Park. The city is also home to Fort McHenry National Monument and Historic Shrine, a coastal star-shaped fort best known for its role in the War of 1812. In its 2013 ParkScore ranking, The Trust for Public Land, a national land conservation organization, reported that Baltimore had the 21st best park system among the 50 most populous U.S. cities.
Baltimore Visitor Center in Inner Harbor
Fountain near visitor center in Inner Harbor
Sunset views from Baltimore's Inner Harbor
Baltimore is an independent city, and not part of any county. For most governmental purposes under Maryland law, Baltimore City is treated as a county-level entity. The United States Census Bureau uses counties as the basic unit for presentation of statistical information in the United States, and treats Baltimore as a county equivalent for those purposes.
Baltimore has been a Democratic stronghold for over 150 years, with Democrats dominating every level of government. In virtually all elections, the Democratic primary is the real contest. The city hosted the first six Democratic National Conventions, from 1832 through 1852, and hosted the DNC again in 1860, 1872, and 1912.
Sheila Dixon became the first female mayor of Baltimore on January 17, 2007. As the former City Council President, she assumed the office of Mayor when former Mayor Martin O'Malley took office as Governor of Maryland. On November 6, 2007, Dixon won the Baltimore mayoral election. Mayor Dixon's administration ended less than three years after her election, the result of a criminal investigation that began in 2006 while she was still City Council President. She was convicted on a single misdemeanor charge of embezzlement on December 1, 2009. A month later, Dixon made an Alford plea to a perjury charge and agreed to resign from office; Maryland, like most states, does not allow convicted felons to hold office.
Stephanie Rawlings-Blake, who was City Council President at that time, assumed the office of Mayor on February 4, 2010, when Dixon's resignation became effective. She was elected to a full term in 2011, receiving 84% of the vote.
Grassroots pressure for reform, voiced as Question P, restructured the city council in November 2002, against the will of the mayor, the council president, and the majority of the council. A coalition of union and community groups, organized by the Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now (ACORN), backed the effort.
The Baltimore City Council is now made up of 14 single-member districts and one elected at-large council president. Bernard C. "Jack" Young has been the council president since February 2010, when he was unanimously elected by the other council members to replace Stephanie Rawlings-Blake, who had become mayor. Edward Reisinger, the 10th district representative, is the council's current vice president.
The Baltimore City Police Department, founded 1853, is the primary law enforcement agency serving the citizens of Baltimore. Campus security for the city's public schools is provided by the Baltimore City Public Schools Police, established in the 1970s.
Law enforcement on the fleet of transit buses and transit rail systems serving Baltimore is the responsibility of the Maryland Transit Administration Police, which is part of the Maryland Transit Administration of the state Department of Transportation. The MTA Police also share jurisdiction authority with the Baltimore City Police, governed by a memorandum of understanding.
As the enforcement arm of the Baltimore circuit and district court system, the Baltimore City Sheriff's Office, created by state constitutional amendment in 1844, is responsible for the security of city courthouses and property, service of court-ordered writs, protective and peace orders, warrants, tax levies, prisoner transportation and traffic enforcement. Deputy Sheriffs are sworn law enforcement officials, with full arrest authority granted by the constitution of Maryland, the Maryland Police and Correctional Training Commission and the Sheriff of the City of Baltimore.
The United States Coast Guard also operates and maintains a presence on Baltimore and Maryland waterways. Sector Baltimore is responsible for commanding law enforcement and search & rescue units as well as aids to navigation.
The city of Baltimore is protected by the over 1,800 professional firefighters of the Baltimore City Fire Department (BCFD), founded in December 1858, and began operating the following year. Replacing several warring independent volunteer companies since the 1770s and the confusion resulting from a riot involving the "Know-Nothing" political party two years before, the establishment of a unified professional fire fighting force was a major advance in urban governance. The BCFD operates out of 37 fire stations, located throughout the city and has a long history and sets of traditions in its various houses and divisions.
Since the legislative redistricting in 2002, Baltimore has had six legislative districts located entirely within its boundaries, giving the city six seats in the 47-member Maryland Senate and 18 in the 141-member Maryland House of Delegates. During the previous 10-year period, Baltimore had four legislative districts within the city limits, but four others overlapped the Baltimore County line. As of January 2011, all of Baltimore's state senators and delegates were Democrats. Approval of the next redistricting plan is expected to become effective in time for Maryland's 2012 congressional primary election on February 14, 2012.
Both of Maryland's senators, Ben Cardin and Barbara Mikulski, are from Baltimore, and both represented the 3rd District before being elected to the Senate. Mikulski represented the 3rd from 1977 to 1987, and was succeeded by Cardin, who held the seat until his election and inauguration to the Senate in 2007.
The Interstate highways serving Baltimore are I-70, I-83 (the Jones Falls Expressway), I-95 (the John F. Kennedy Memorial Highway north of the city), I-395, I-695 (the Baltimore Beltway), I-795 (the Northwest Expressway), I-895 (the Harbor Tunnel Thruway), and I-97. The city's mainline Interstate highways—I-95, I-83, and I-70—do not directly connect to each other, and in the case of I-70 end at a park and ride lot just inside the city limits, because of freeway revolts in Baltimore. These revolts were led primarily by Barbara Mikulski, now a United States senator, which resulted in the abandonment of the original plan. There are two tunnels traversing Baltimore Harbor within the city limits: the four-bore Fort McHenry Tunnel (serving I-95) and the two-bore Harbor Tunnel (serving I-895). The Baltimore Beltway crosses south of Baltimore Harbor over the Francis Scott Key Bridge.
The only U.S. Highways in the city are US 1, which bypasses downtown, and US 40, which crosses downtown from east to west. Both run along major surface streets; however, US 40 utilizes a small section of a freeway cancelled in the 1970s in the west side of the city originally intended for Interstate 170. State routes in the city also travel along surface streets, with the exception of Maryland Route 295, which carries the Baltimore–Washington Parkway.
The Baltimore City Department of Transportation (BCDOT) is responsible for several functions of the road transportation system in Baltimore, including repairing roads, sidewalks, and alleys; road signs; street lights; and managing the flow of transportation systems. In addition, the agency is in charge of vehicle towing and traffic cameras. BCDOT maintains all streets within the city of Baltimore. These includes all streets that are marked as state and U.S. highways as well as the portions of I-83 and I-70 within the city limits. The only highways within the city that are not maintained by BCDOT are I-95, I-395, I-695, and I-895; those four highways are maintained by the Maryland Transportation Authority.
Charm City Circulator Van Hool A330 #1101 on the Orange Line
The Charm City Circulator (CCC), a shuttle bus service operated by Veolia Transportation for the Baltimore Department of Transportation, began operating in the downtown area in January 2010. Funded partly by a 16 percent increase in the city's parking fees, the circulator provides free bus service seven days a week, picking up passengers every 15 minutes at designated stops during service hours.
The CCC's first bus line, the Orange route, travels between Hollins Market and Harbor East. Its Purple route, launched June 7, 2010, operates between Penn Station and Federal Hill. The Green route runs between Johns Hopkins and City Hall. The Charm City Circulator operates a fleet of diesel and hybrid vehicles built by DesignLine, Orion, and Van Hool.
Baltimore has a comprehensive system of bicycle routes in the city. These routes are not numbered, but are typically denoted with green signs sporting a silhouette of a bicycle upon an outline of the city's border, and denote the distance to destinations, much like bicycle routes in the rest of the state. The roads carrying bicycle routes are also labelled with either bike lanes, sharrows, or Share the Road signs. Many of these routes pass through the downtown area. The network of bicycle lanes in the city continues to expand. Guilford Avenue, between downtown and University Boulevard, was also reconstructed as a bike boulevard in 2012.
Baltimore currently has three major trail systems within the city. The Gwynns Falls Trail runs from the Inner Harbor to the I-70 Park and Ride, passing through Gwynns Falls Park and possessing numerous branches. There are also many pedestrian hiking trails traversing the park. The Jones Falls Trail currently runs from the Inner Harbor to the Cylburn Arboretum; however, it is currently undergoing expansion. Long term plans call for it to extend to the Mount Washington Light Rail Stop, and possibly as far north as the Falls Road stop to connect to the Robert E. Lee boardwalk north of the city. It will also incorporate a spur alongside Western Run. The two aforementioned trails carry sections of the East Coast Greenway through the city. There is also the Herring Run Trail, which runs from Harford Road east to its end beyond Sinclair Lane, utilizing Herring Run Park; long term plans also call for its extension to Morgan State University and north to points beyond.
In addition to the bicycle trails, Baltimore has the Stony Run Trail, a walking path that will eventually connect from the Jones Falls north to Northern Parkway, utilizing much of the old Ma and Pa Railroad corridor inside the city. In 2011, the city undertook a campaign to reconstruct many sidewalk ramps in the city, coinciding with mass resurfacing of the city's streets. A 2011 study by Walk Score ranked Baltimore the 14th most walkable of fifty largest U.S. cities.
Baltimore harbor in 1849 with the prominent Washington Monument in the background north of the city
The port was founded in 1706, preceding the founding of Baltimore. The Maryland colonial legislature made the area near Locust Point as the port of entry for the tobacco trade with England. Fells Point, the deepest point in the natural harbor, soon became the colony's main ship building center, later on becoming leader in the construction of clipper ships.
After Baltimore's founding, mills were built behind the wharves. The California Gold Rush led to many orders for fast vessels; many overland pioneers also relied upon canned goods from Baltimore. After the Civil War, a coffee ship was designed here for trade with Brazil. At the end of the nineteenth century, European ship lines had terminals for immigrants. The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad made the port a major transshipment point.:17,75 Currently the port has major roll-on/roll-off facilities, as well as bulk facilities, especially steel handling.
Water taxis also operate in the Inner Harbor. Governor Ehrlich participated in naming the port after Helen Delich Bentley during the 300th anniversary of the port.
In 2007, Duke Realty Corporation began a new development near the Port of Baltimore, named the Chesapeake Commerce Center. This new industrial park is located on the site of a former General Motors plant. The total project comprises 184 acres (0.74 km2) in eastern Baltimore City, and the site will yield 2,800,000 square feet (260,000 m2) of warehouse/distribution and office space. Chesapeake Commerce Center has direct access to two major Interstate highways (I-95 and I-895) and is located adjacent to two of the major Port of Baltimore terminals. The Port of Baltimore is one of two seaports on the U.S. East Coast with a 50-foot (15 m) dredge to accommodate the largest shipping vessels.
Baltimore's main newspaper is The Baltimore Sun. It was sold by its Baltimore owners in 1986 to the Times Mirror Company, which was bought by the Tribune Company in 2000. The Baltimore News-American, another long-running paper that competed with the Sun, ceased publication in 1986.
In 2006, The Baltimore Examiner was launched to compete with The Sun. It was part of a national chain that includes The San Francisco Examiner and The Washington Examiner. In contrast to the paid subscription Sun, The Examiner was a free newspaper funded solely by advertisements. Unable to turn a profit and facing a deep recession, The Baltimore Examiner ceased publication on February 15, 2009.
Nielsen ranked Baltimore as the 26th-largest television market for the 2008–2009 viewing season and the 27th-largest for 2009–2010. Arbitron's Fall 2010 rankings identified Baltimore as the 22nd largest radio market.
Since 1950, when the National Weather Service switched to using the suburban and generally much cooler BWI Airport as the official Baltimore climatology station, this extreme has repeated three times: January 29, 1963, January 17, 1982, and January 22, 1984.
Temperature, precipitation normals are recorded at Maryland Science Center in downtown; the National Weather Service does not yet record snowfall at this location, so the snow normals for BWI Airport, at an elevation of 156 ft (47.5 m) about 10 mi (16 km) south of downtown, are shown. Likewise humidity and sun duration normals were recorded at BWI Airport.
^ Donovan, Doug (May 20, 2006). "Baltimore's New Bait: The City is About to Unveil a New Slogan, 'Get In On It,' Meant to Intrigue Visitors". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved November 28, 2008.
Smith, Van (October 6, 2004). "Mob Rules". Baltimore City Paper. Archived from the original on January 12, 2009. Retrieved January 24, 2009.
Kane, Gregory (June 15, 2009). "Dispatch from Bodymore, Murderland". Washington Examiner.
"The Land Of Pleasant Living". City Paper. October 4, 2010.
"Baltimore Heritage Area". Maryland Historical Trust. February 11, 2011. Retrieved March 30, 2011.
"Baltimore: A City of Firsts". Visit Baltimore. Retrieved March 30, 2011.
"Best Monument". 2005 Baltimore Living Winners. Baltimore City Paper. September 21, 2005. Archived from the original on October 12, 2007. Retrieved September 19, 2007.
"Ravenstown". Baltimore Ravens. Retrieved June 7, 2008.
"Baltimore Fun Facts: Historical Trivia". Baltimore City Police. Retrieved January 4, 2013.
"More Literate than Akron". Baltimore City Paper. August 18, 2004. Retrieved February 10, 2010.
"In Baltimore, Slogan Collides with Reality" The New York Times. July 25, 2012.
^ 2010 Census U.S. Gazetteer Files: Counties. U.S. Census Bureau, Geography Division (March 2, 2011). Retrieved March 18, 2011.
"USGS detail on Baltimore". Retrieved October 23, 2008.
"Annual Estimates of the Population of Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2009". US Census Bureau. October 20, 2003. Retrieved March 31, 2010.
"U.S. Census Bureau Delivers Maryland's 2010 Census Population Totals". U.S. Census 2010 press release. February 9, 2011. Retrieved March 18, 2011.
"Baltimore city, Maryland". US Census Bureau: State and County Quick Facts. US Census Bureau. 27 March 2014. Retrieved 2 April 2014.
Hughes, Joseph R. "Inland port gives Baltimore strategic shipping advantages". Washington Examiner. Retrieved June 23, 2011.
"Baltimore Heritage Area". Maryland Historical Trust. February 11, 2011. Retrieved December 30, 2011.
"Major Employers | Baltimore Development Corporation". Baltimoredevelopment.com. Archived from the original on 2010-07-25. Retrieved July 8, 2013.
"Metro Area Factsheet: Baltimore, Maryland PMSA". FAIR US. Retrieved December 31, 2011.
"Annual Estimates of the Population of Combined Statistical Areas: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2009" (CSV). 2009 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. March 2010. Archived from the original on April 20, 2010. Retrieved March 31, 2010.
^ "About Baltimore". Baltimore.org. Retrieved July 8, 2013.
"Placenames". n-ireland.co.uk. Archived from the original on April 30, 2007. Retrieved March 29, 2007.
Brugger, Robert J. (1988). Maryland: A Middle Temperament, 1634–1980. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press. p. 4. ISBN 0-8018-3399-X.
Krugler, John D (2004). English and Catholic: the Lords Baltimore in the Seventeenth Century. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 74. ISBN 0-8018-7963-9.
Kent Mountford (July 1, 2003). "History behind sugar trade, Chesapeake not always sweet". Bay Journal.
Hezekiah Niles (1876). Principles and Acts of the Revolution in America. New York: A. S. Barnes & Co. pp. 257–258.
"Henry Fite's House, Baltimore". U.S. Department of State, Office of the Historian. Archived from the original on March 26, 2011. Retrieved March 23, 2011.
"Baltimore, Maryland—Government". Maryland Manual On-Line: A Guide to Maryland Government. Maryland State Archives. October 23, 2008. Archived from the original on September 19, 2008. Retrieved October 27, 2008.
"The Great Strike". Catskill Archive. Timothy J. Mallery. Archived from the original on September 29, 2008. Retrieved October 26, 2008.
"Baltimore, October 17". Salem Gazette (Salem, Massachusetts). October 23, 1827. p. 2. Retrieved October 27, 2008.
"The Baltimore Bank Riot". University of Illinois Press. Retrieved January 5, 2010.
Clayton, Ralph (2000-07-12). "A bitter Inner Harbor legacy: the slave trade". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved July 8, 2013.
"Baltimore '68 Events Timeline". Baltimore 68: riots and Rebirth. University of Baltimore Archives. Retrieved January 19, 2011.
"Recalling Baltimore's 1968 riots". The Baltimore Sun. April 3, 1998. Retrieved January 19, 2011.
Police Chief Donald Pomerleau said, "We're in a semi-riot mode, similar to the 1968 riots." See: "Cops storm jail rebels; Baltimore in semi-riot state". Chicago Tribune. UPI. July 14, 1974. Retrieved August 5, 2012.
"Who We Are". Maryland Stadium Authority. Archived from the original on October 18, 2008. Retrieved October 26, 2008.
"Highest and Lowest Elevations in Maryland's Counties". Maryland Geological Survey. Archived from the original on October 5, 2007. Retrieved November 14, 2007.
Evitts, Elizabeth (April 2003). "Window to the Future" (PDF). Baltimore Magazine. Retrieved May 6, 2009.
Bishop, Tricia (April 7, 2003). "Illuminated by a jewel". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved May 6, 2009.
Mary Ellen Hayward and Charles Belfoure (1999). The Baltimore Rowhouse. Princeton Architectural Press. p. back cover. ISBN 1-56898-283-6. Retrieved March 21, 2011.
Hayward and Belfoure, pp 17–18, 22.
Paul K. Williams (September 23, 2009). "The Story of Formstone". Welcome to Baltimore, Hon!. Retrieved March 21, 2011.
"Waterfront Mansion Overlooking Inner Harbor Priced At $8.5M « CBS Baltimore". Baltimore.cbslocal.com. 2013-03-11. Retrieved July 8, 2013.
"Everyman Theatre Honored with 'Baltimore Heritage Historic Preservation Award'". Retrieved July 8, 2013.
Hopkins, Jamie Smith (October 31, 2011). "Transamerica workers begin move to downtown skyscraper". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved November 16, 2011.
"Legg Mason Building". Emporis Corporation. Retrieved November 1, 2007.
"Bank of America Building". Emporis Corporation. Retrieved November 1, 2007.
"William Donald Schaefer Tower". Emporis Corporation. Retrieved November 1, 2007.
"Commerce Place". Emporis Corporation. Retrieved November 1, 2007.
"100 East Pratt Street". Emporis Corporation. Retrieved November 1, 2007.
"Trade Center". Emporis Corporation. Retrieved November 1, 2007.
"Tremont Plaza Hotel". Emporis Corporation. Retrieved November 1, 2007.
"Charles Towers South Apartments". Emporis Corporation. Retrieved November 1, 2007.
"Blaustein Building". Emporis Corporation. Retrieved November 1, 2007.
"250 West Pratt Street". Emporis Corporation. Retrieved November 1, 2007.
^ Mary K. Tilghman (2008). Insiders' Guide to Baltimore. Morris Book Publishing LLC. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-7627-4553-1.
Scott Sheads. "Locust Point – Celebrating 300 Years of a Historic Community". Locust Point Civic Association. Retrieved April 1, 2011.
"Discover Federal Hill". Historic Federal Hill. Retrieved April 1, 2011.
"History of Cherry Hill". Cherry Hill Master Plan. Baltimore City Department of Planning. July 10, 2008. p. 10. Retrieved April 1, 2011.
"Westport Waterfront". Retrieved April 25, 2013.
"Profile of General Demographic Characteristics (2000): Hillen". Baltimore City Planning Department. Retrieved March 29, 2011.
"Profile of General Demographic Characteristics (2000): Stonewood-Pentwood-Winston" (PDF). Baltimore City Planning Department. Retrieved March 29, 2011.
Gadi Dechter (May 24, 2006). "A Guided Tour of "The Wire's" East Baltimore". Baltimore City Paper. Retrieved April 1, 2011.
"The changing face of East Baltimore". Retrieved July 8, 2013.
"Harris Teeter, Old Navy, Loft to open with Target at Canton Crossing". Retrieved July 8, 2013.
^ "Park Heights". Live in Baltimore. Retrieved April 4, 2011.
Jewish Map of the United States
Theo Lippman, Jr. (September 19, 1990). "Remember When: The shorthand way to describe what was...". The Baltimore Sun.
"About Us". Sandtown Habitat for Humanity. Retrieved April 5, 2011.
"Upton". Live in Baltimore. Retrieved April 5, 2011.
"USDA Zone Map Lookup: Baltimore, MD". The Arbor Day Foundation. Retrieved July 8, 2013.
Steve Kilar (2013-03-14). "Baltimore's population up, following decades of loss". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved July 8, 2013.
"Baltimore (city), Maryland". State & County QuickFacts. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved April 23, 2012.
"Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved April 23, 2012.
"1840 Fast Facts: 10 Largest Urban Places". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 29, 2011.
^ "1850 Fast Facts: 10 Largest Urban Places". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 29, 2011.
"1830 Fast Facts: 10 Largest Urban Places". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 29, 2011.
"1860 Fast Facts: 10 Largest Urban Places". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 29, 2011.
"1980 Fast Facts: 10 Largest Urban Places". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 29, 2011.
"Families increasing in downtown Baltimore". Thedailyrecord.com. May 17, 2011. Retrieved January 8, 2012.
Uliano, Dick (October 1, 2012). "Downtown neighborhoods enjoying resurgence". WTOP. Retrieved July 8, 2013.
Baltimore city, Maryland: People QuickFacts. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 18, 2011
Statistical Abstract of the United States: Income, Expenditures, Poverty, and Wealth. U.S. Census Bureau (2011). Retrieved March 22, 2011.
"Additional Statistics for Single Family Homes and Condos in Baltimore, MD". Baltimore Real Estate Market. RealEstate.com. Retrieved February 5, 2013.
Jamie Smith Hopkins (October 27, 2010). "A smaller rent increase for a wider swath of Baltimore apartments". The Baltimore Sun-news. Retrieved March 18, 2011.
Smith, Van (October 19, 2011). "Census shows striking growth in Baltimore homelessness Population swells nearly 20 percent in two years; ranks of homeless young people increase 50 percent". CityPaper. Retrieved August 9, 2012. "The biennial homeless censuses, which are required under federal law and are conducted on a single day—this year, Jan. 25—have trended upward since the first one in 2003 counted 2,681 homeless people in Baltimore, compared to 4,088 this year, according to the report by Morgan State's School of Architecture and Planning. Called a "point-in-time" survey, the census effort looks for homeless people living on the streets as well as those checking into shelters and hospital emergency rooms and receiving other homeless services. The count of Baltimore's young homeless people, which is evaluated separately by the Center for Adolescent Health at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and is undertaken over a period of weeks instead of one day, has risen 135 percent since 2007, from 272 to 640. Rather than canvassing the streets for homeless youngsters, the effort relies on data provided by cooperating service providers, including the city public-schools system."
Gary J. Gates, PhD. "Same-sex Couples and the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual Population: New Estimates from the American Community Survey". The Williams Institute on Sexual Orientation. Retrieved January 22, 2014.
Alana Semuels (November 7, 2012). "Voters OK gay marriage in Maine, Maryland". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 22, 2014.
"Baltimore Maryland Population Statistics". US Census Bureau. Retrieved March 15, 2013.
Vicino, Thomas J. (2008). Transforming Race and Class in Suburbia: Decline in Metropolitan Baltimore. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9780230605459.
Moore, Robert (2004). "A Brief Economic History of Modern Baltimore". Putting Baltimore's People First Keys to Responsible Economic Development of Our City. District 1199E-DC, SEIU, AFL–CIO. Retrieved October 7, 2012.
Hopkins, Jamie Smith (April 26, 2012). "'Next economy' envisioned for Baltimore region: Brookings study calls on leaders to reshape economy, reverse low-wage trend". Baltimore Sun. Retrieved October 7, 2012.
Walsh, Richard; William Lloyd Fox (1974). Maryland--a history, 1632-1974. Baltimore: Maryland Historical Society. p. 425. OCLC 1217352.|accessdate= requires |url= (help)
Haber, Gary (September 24, 2012). "Rawlings-Blake talks Baltimore's jobs effort". Baltimore Business Journal. Retrieved October 7, 2012.
Shen, Fern (August 20, 2012). "Baltimore steelworkers brace for unemployment: "It's rough out there" Men and women schooled in steelmaking reflect on their future.". Baltimore Brew. Retrieved October 7, 2012.
Kilar, Steve (September 20, 2012). "Baltimore's poverty rate unchanged at 1 in 4 residents: More young Marylanders insured following healthcare overhaul". Baltimore Sun. Retrieved October 7, 2012.
Mirabella, Lorraine (October 14, 2011). "Under Armour's growth worries some neighbors: Company plans to double size of Baltimore headquarters". Baltimore Sun. Retrieved October 5, 2012.
"Company Overview of The Cordish Company, Inc.". Real Estate Management and Development. Business Week. Retrieved October 5, 2012.
"Best Convenience-Store Dining: Royal Farms". CityPaper. September 19, 2001. Retrieved October 5, 2012.
"Downtown Partership of Baltimore and Downtown Management Authority". Godowntownbaltimore.com. Retrieved July 8, 2013.
"Baltimore City Residents". City of Baltimore, Maryland. Archived from the original on June 21, 2009. Retrieved June 5, 2009.
"Germans to America – Lists of Passengers Arriving at U.S. Ports 1850-1897". German Roots. Retrieved July 8, 2013.
Mike Unger. "Artscape 2010 in Baltimore". About.com Baltimore. Retrieved March 15, 2011.
Sandler, Gilbert (July 18, 1995). "How the city's nickname came to be". Baltimore Sun. Retrieved August 1, 2012.
Sandler, Gil (August 18, 1998). "Where did city get its charming nickname? Baltimore Glimpses". Baltimore Sun. Retrieved August 1, 2012.
^ Soundings (November 2010). "The best of Baltimore Begins at the deck of your boat." http://www.soundingsonline.com/news/home-waters/102-mid-atlantic/266372-the-best-of-baltimore-begins-at-the-deck-of-your-boat
"'House of Cards' filming in Maryland". Retrieved July 8, 2013.
"The Mid-Atlantic Dialects". Evolution Publishing. Retrieved March 29, 2011.
"Baltimore's African American Heritage and Attractions Guide: Visual and Performing Arts". Visit Baltimore (affiliated with the Baltimore Convention & Tourism Board). Retrieved Jan 5, 2010.
Michael Byrne (September 30, 2009). "Tales of Brotopia: The Baltimore Rock Opera Society drops Gründlehämmer". Baltimore City Paper. Retrieved July 7, 2011.
"Presenters and Ensembles Honored for Adventurous Programming of Contemporary Music" (PDF) (Press release). Chamber Music America. December 13, 2011. Retrieved February 15, 2012.
^ "The Peabody Institute at the Johns Hopkins University – The John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts". Kennedy-center.org. Retrieved July 8, 2013.